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The opposite long side is usually a long mirror. The U-shaped ends of the table have duplicate layouts and standing room for approximately eight players.
In the center of the layout is an additional group of bets which are used by players from both ends. The vertical walls at each end are usually covered with a rubberized target surface covered with small pyramid shapes to randomize the dice which strike them.
The top edges of the table walls have one or two horizontal grooves in which players may store their reserve checks. The table is run by up to four casino employees: Each employee also watches for mistakes by the others because of the sometimes large number of bets and frantic pace of the game. In smaller casinos or at quiet times of day, one or more of these employees may be missing, and have their job covered by another, or cause player capacity to be reduced.
Some smaller casinos have introduced "mini-craps" tables which are operated with only two dealers; rather than being two essentially identical sides and the center area, a single set of major bets is presented, split by the center bets. Responsibility of the dealers is adjusted: By contrast, in "street craps", there is no marked table and often the game is played with no back-stop against which the dice are to hit.
Despite the name "street craps", this game is often played in houses, usually on an un-carpeted garage or kitchen floor. The wagers are made in cash, never in chips, and are usually thrown down onto the ground or floor by the players. There are no attendants, and so the progress of the game, fairness of the throws, and the way that the payouts are made for winning bets are self-policed by the players.
Each casino may set which bets are offered and different payouts for them, though a core set of bets and payouts is typical. Players take turns rolling two dice and whoever is throwing the dice is called the "shooter". Players can bet on the various options by placing chips directly on the appropriately-marked sections of the layout, or asking the base dealer or stickman to do so, depending on which bet is being made.
The game is played in rounds and these "Pass" and "Don't Pass" bets are betting on the outcome of a round. The shooter is presented with multiple dice typically five by the "stickman", and must choose two for the round. The remaining dice are returned to the stickman's bowl and are not used. Each round has two phases: Dice are passed to the left. To start a round, the shooter makes one or more "come-out" rolls.
The shooter must shoot toward the farther back wall and is generally required to hit the farther back wall with both dice. Casinos may allow a few warnings before enforcing the dice to hit the back wall and are generally lenient if at least one die hits the back wall. Both dice must be tossed in one throw.
If only one die is thrown the shot is invalid. A come-out roll of 2, 3 or 12 is called "craps" or "crapping out", and anyone betting the Pass line loses. On the other hand, anyone betting the Don't Pass line on come out wins with a roll of 2 or 3 and ties pushes if a 12 is rolled.
Shooters may keep rolling after crapping out; the dice are only required to be passed if a shooter sevens out rolls a seven after a point has been established.
A come-out roll of 7 or 11 is a " natural "; the Pass line wins and Don't Pass loses. The other possible numbers are the point numbers: If the shooter rolls one of these numbers on the come-out roll, this establishes the "point" — to "pass" or "win", the point number must be rolled again before a seven.
The dealer flips a button to the "On" side and moves it to the point number signifying the second phase of the round. If the shooter "hits" the point value again any value of the dice that sum to the point will do; the shooter doesn't have to exactly repeat the exact combination of the come-out roll before rolling a seven, the Pass line wins and a new round starts. If the shooter rolls any seven before repeating the point number a "seven-out" , the Pass line loses, the Don't Pass line wins, and the dice pass clockwise to the next new shooter for the next round.
Any single roll bet is always affected win or lose by the outcome of any roll. While the come-out roll may specifically refer to the first roll of a new shooter, any roll where no point is established may be referred to as a come-out. By this definition the start of any new round regardless if it is the shooter's first toss can be referred to as a come-out roll.
Any player can make a bet on pass or don't pass as long as a point has not been established, or come or don't come as long as a point is established. All other bets, including an increase in odds behind the pass and don't pass lines, may be made at any time.
All bets other than pass line and come may be removed or reduced any time before the bet loses. This is known as "taking it down" in craps. Lay bet maximum are equal to the table maximum win, so if a player wishes to lay the 4 or 10, he or she may bet twice at amount of the table maximum for the win to be table maximum. Odds behind Pass, Come, Don't Pass and Don't Come may be however larger than the odds offered allows and can be greater than the table maximum in some casinos.
Don't odds are capped on the maximum allowed win some casino allow the odds bet itself to be larger than the maximum bet allowed as long as the win is capped at maximum odds. Single rolls bets can be lower than the table minimum, but the maximum bet allowed is also lower than the table maximum. The maximum allowed single roll bet is based on the maximum allowed win from a single roll.
In all the above scenarios, whenever the Pass line wins, the Don't Pass line loses, and vice versa , with one exception: The same applies to "Come" and "Don't Come" bets, discussed below. A player wishing to play craps without being the shooter should approach the craps table and first check to see if the dealer's "On" button is on any of the point numbers.
In either case, all single or multi-roll proposition bets may be placed in either of the two rounds. Between dice rolls there is a period for dealers to make payouts and collect losing bets, after which players can place new bets. The stickman monitors the action at a table and decides when to give the shooter the dice, after which no more betting is allowed.
When joining the game, one should place money on the table rather than passing it directly to a dealer, the dealer's exaggerated movements during the process of "making change" or "change only" converting currency to an equivalent in casino cheques are required so that any disputes can be later reviewed against security camera footage.
The dealers will insist that the shooter roll with one hand and that the dice bounce off the far wall surrounding the table. These requirements are meant to keep the game fair preventing switching the dice or making a "controlled shot". If a die leaves the table, the shooter will usually be asked to select another die from the remaining three but can request permission to use the same die if it passes the boxman's inspection. This requirement exists to keep the game fair and reduce the chance of loaded dice.
There are many local variants of the calls made by the stickman for rolls during a craps game. These often incorporate a reminder to the dealers as to which bets to pay or collect. Rolls of 4, 6, 8, and 10 are called "hard" or "easy" e. Hard way rolls are so named because there is only one way to roll them i. Consequently, it is more likely to roll the number in combinations easy rather than as a double hard.
The shooter is required to make either a pass line bet or a Don't Pass bet if he wants to shoot. On the come out roll each player may only make one bet on the Pass or Don't Pass, but may bet both if desired.
The Pass Line and Don't Pass bet is optional for any player not shooting. In rare cases, some casinos require all players to make a minimum Pass Line or Don't Pass bet if they want to make any other bet , whether they are currently shooting or not. The fundamental bet in craps is the pass line bet, which is a bet for the shooter to win. This bet must be at least the table minimum and at most the table maximum. The pass line bet is a contract bet. Once a pass line bet is made, it is always working and cannot be turned "Off", taken down, or reduced until a decision is reached — the point is made, or the shooter sevens out.
A player may increase any corresponding odds up to the table limit behind the Pass line at any time after a point is established. Players may only bet the pass line on the come out roll when no point has been established, unless the casino allows put betting where the player can bet Pass line or increase an existing Pass line bet whenever desired and may take odds immediately if the point is already on.
A don't pass bet is a bet for the shooter to lose "seven out, line away" and is almost the opposite of the pass line bet. Like the Pass bet, this bet must be at least the table minimum and at most the table maximum.
The don't pass bet is a no-contract bet. After a point is established, a player may take down or reduce a don't pass bet and any corresponding odds at any time because odds of rolling a 7 before the point is in the player's favor. Once taken down or reduced, however, the don't pass bet may not be restored or increased. Because the shooter must have a line bet the shooter generally may not reduce a don't pass bet below the table minimum. In Las Vegas , a majority of casinos will allow the shooter to move the bet to the pass line in lieu of taking it down, however in other areas such as Pennsylvania and Atlantic City , this is not allowed.
Even though players are allowed to remove the don't pass line bet after a point has been established, the bet cannot be turned "Off" without being removed. If a player chooses to remove the don't pass line bet, he or she can no longer lay odds behind the don't pass line. The player can, however, still make standard lay bets on any of the point numbers 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, There are two different ways to calculate the odds and house edge of this bet.
The table below gives the numbers considering that the game ends in a push when a 12 is rolled, rather than being undetermined. Betting on don't pass is often called "playing the dark side", and it is considered by some players to be in poor taste, or even taboo, because it goes directly against conventional play, winning when most of the players lose.
If a 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10 is thrown on the come-out roll i. This additional bet wins if the point is rolled again before a 7 is rolled the point is made and pays at the true odds of 2-to-1 if 4 or 10 is the point, 3-to-2 if 5 or 9 is the point, or 6-to-5 if 6 or 8 is the point. Unlike the pass line bet itself, the pass line odds bet can be turned "Off" not working , removed or reduced anytime before it loses. In Las Vegas, generally odds bets are required to be the table minimum.
In Atlantic City and Pennsylvania, the combine odds and pass bet must be table minimum so players can bet the minimum single unit on odds depending on the point.
If the player requests the pass odds be not working "Off" and the shooter sevens-out or hits the point, the pass line bet will be lost or doubled and the pass odds returned. Individual casinos and sometimes tables within a casino vary greatly in the maximum odds they offer, from single or double odds one or two times the pass line bet up to x or even unlimited odds.
A variation often seen is "X Odds", where the maximum allowed odds bet depends on the point: This rule simplifies the calculation of winnings: As odds bets are paid at true odds, in contrast with the pass line which is always even money, taking odds on a minimum pass line bet lessens the house advantage compared with betting the same total amount on the pass line only.
A maximum odds bet on a minimum pass line bet often gives the lowest house edge available in any game in the casino. However, the odds bet cannot be made independently, so the house retains an edge on the pass line bet itself.
If a player is playing don't pass instead of pass, they may also lay odds by placing chips behind the don't pass line. If a 7 comes before the point is rolled, the odds pay at true odds of 1-to-2 if 4 or 10 is the point, 2-to-3 if 5 or 9 is the point, or 5-to-6 if 6 or 8 is the point.
Typically the maximum lay bet will be expressed such that a player may win up to an amount equal to the maximum odds multiple at the table.
If a player lays maximum odds with a point of 4 or 10 on a table offering five-times odds, he would be able to lay a maximum of ten times the amount of his Don't Pass bet. At 5x odds table, the maximum amount the combined bet can win will always be 6x the amount of the Don't Pass bet. Players can bet table minimum odds if desired and win less than table minimum. Like the Don't Pass bet the odds can be removed or reduced. Unlike the don't pass bet itself, the don't pass odds can be turned "Off" not working.
In Las Vegas generally odds bets are required to be the table minimum. In Atlantic City and Pennsylvania, the combine lay odds and Don't Pass bet must be table minimum so players may bet as little as the minimum two units on odds depending on the point.
If the player requests the don't pass odds to be not working "Off" and the shooter hits the point or sevens-out, the don't pass bet will be lost or doubled and the don't pass odds returned. Unlike a standard lay bet on a point, lay odds behind the Don't Pass line does not charge commission vig. A Come bet can be visualized as starting an entirely new pass line bet, unique to that player. Like the Pass Line each player may only make one Come bet per roll, this does not exclude a player from betting odds on an already established Come point.
Players may bet both the Come and Don't Come on the same roll if desired. Come bets can only be made after a point has been established since, on the come-out roll, a Come bet would be the same thing as a pass line bet. A player making a Come bet will bet on the first point number that "comes" from the shooter's next roll, regardless of the table's round.
If a 7 or 11 is rolled on the first round, it wins. If a 2, 3, or 12 is rolled, it loses. If instead the roll is 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10, the Come bet will be moved by the base dealer onto a box representing the number the shooter threw. This number becomes the "come-bet point" and the player is allowed to take odds, just like a pass line bet. Also like a pass line bet, the come bet is a contract bet and is always working, and cannot be turned "Off", removed or reduced until it wins or loses.
However, the odds taken behind a Come bet can be turned "Off" not working , removed or reduced anytime before the bet loses. In Atlantic City and Pennsylvania, the combine odds and pass bet must be table minimum so players can bet the minimum single unit depending on the point. If the player requests the Come odds to be not working "Off" and the shooter sevens-out or hits the Come bet point, the Come bet will be lost or doubled and the Come odds returned. If the casino allows put betting a player may increase a Come bet after a point has been established and bet larger odds behind if desired.
Put betting also allows a player to bet on a Come and take odds immediately on a point number without a Come bet point being established. The dealer will place the odds on top of the come bet, but slightly off center in order to differentiate between the original bet and the odds. The second round wins if the shooter rolls the come bet point again before a seven.
Winning come bets are paid the same as winning pass line bets: If, instead, the seven is rolled before the come-bet point, the come bet and any odds bet loses. Because of the come bet, if the shooter makes their point, a player can find themselves in the situation where they still have a come bet possibly with odds on it and the next roll is a come-out roll. In this situation, odds bets on the come wagers are usually presumed to be not working for the come-out roll.
That means that if the shooter rolls a 7 on the come-out roll, any players with active come bets waiting for a come-bet point lose their initial wager but will have their odds bets returned to them. If the come-bet point is rolled on the come-out roll, the odds do not win but the come bet does and the odds bet is returned along with the come bet and its payoff. The player can tell the dealer that they want their odds working, such that if the shooter rolls a number that matches the come point, the odds bet will win along with the come bet, and if a seven is rolled, both lose.
Many players will use a come bet as "insurance" against sevening out: The risk in this strategy is the situation where the shooter does not hit a seven for several rolls, leading to multiple come bets that will be lost if the shooter eventually sevens out.
In the same way that a come bet is similar to a pass line bet, a don't come bet is similar to a don't pass bet. Like the come, the don't come can only be bet after a point has already been established as it is the same as a don't pass line bet when no point is established.
A don't come bet is played in two rounds. If a 2 or 3 is rolled in the first round, it wins. If a 7 or 11 is rolled, it loses. If, instead, the roll is 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10, the don't come bet will be moved by the base dealer onto a box representing the number the shooter threw. The second round wins if the shooter rolls a seven before the don't come point. Like the Don't Pass each player may only make one Don't Come bet per roll, this does not exclude a player from laying odds on an already established Don't Come points.
Players may bet both the Don't Come and Come on the same roll if desired. The player may lay odds on a don't come bet, just like a don't pass bet; in this case, the dealer not the player places the odds bet on top of the bet in the box, because of limited space, slightly offset to signify that it is an odds bet and not part of the original don't come bet.
Lay odds behind a Don't Come are subject to the same rules as Don't Pass lay odds. Unlike a standard lay bet on a point, lay odds behind a don't come point does not charge commission vig and gives the player true odds. Like the don't pass line bet, don't come bets are no-contract, and can be removed or reduced after a don't come point has been established, but cannot be turned off "not working" without being removed.
A player may also call, "No Action" when a point is established, and the bet will not be moved to its point. This play is not to the player's advantage. If the bet is removed, the player can no longer lay odds behind the don't come point and cannot restore or increase the same don't come bet. Players must wait until next roll as long as a pass line point has been established players cannot bet don't come on come out rolls before they can make a new don't come bet. Las Vegas casinos which allow put betting allows players to move the Don't Come directly to any Come point as a put, however this is not allowed in Atlantic City or Pennsylvania.
Unlike the don't come bet itself, the don't come odds can be turned "Off" not working , removed or reduced if desired. In Las Vegas, players generally must lay at least table minimum on odds if desired and win less than table minimum, in Atlantic City and Pennsylvania players combined bet must be at least table minimum, so depending on the point number players may lay as little as 2 minimum units e.
If the player requests the don't come odds be not working "Off" and the shooter hits the don't come point or sevens-out, the don't come bet will be lost or doubled and the don't come odds returned. Winning don't come bets are paid the same as winning don't pass bets: Unlike come bets, the odds laid behind points established by don't come bets are always working including come out rolls unless the player specifies otherwise.
These are bets that may not be settled on the first roll and may need any number of subsequent rolls before an outcome is determined. Most multi-roll bets may fall into the situation where a point is made by the shooter before the outcome of the multi-roll bet is decided. These bets are often considered "not working" on the new come-out roll until the next point is established, unless the player calls the bet as "working.
Casino rules vary on this; some of these bets may not be callable, while others may be considered "working" during the come-out. Dealers will usually announce if bets are working unless otherwise called off. If a non-working point number placed, bought or laid becomes the new point as the result of a come-out, the bet is usually refunded, or can be moved to another number for free.
Players can bet any point number 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 by placing their wager in the come area and telling the dealer how much and on what number s , "30 on the 6", "5 on the 5" or "25 on the 10". These are typically "Place Bets to Win".
These are bets that the number bet on will be rolled before a 7 is rolled. These bets are considered working bets, and will continue to be paid out each time a shooter rolls the number bet. By rules, place bets are not working on the come out roll but can be "turned on" by the player. He grabs attention when casinos began to notice surplus of coins. He duplicated the coins exactly the same as real coins and it was very hard to differentiate between the real and the fake ones.
Metals like Zinc, Copper and Nickel with laser to cut them in perfect round shape and finish it with the stamp on the coins and press it with the heavy press from Italy. He was genius at his work that his coins were bought by the authorities to a casino Louis had hit and did not had slightest of idea they were fake.
Before coming into eyes of officials he went to Las Vegas and did the same. Officials were suspicious of him when he showed up with huge surplus amount and their skepticism was confirmed when they check coins. It took FBI more than a week to know how much forgery he has already done after they caught him.
Many Las Vegas casinos denied they had been scammed just by coins. Later he helped them to avoid the same crime in future. They are my favorite and the most famous of all the gambling cheats ever made. They were a group of students of MIT, Harvard and other top schools who took Blackjack strategy to the new level.
They specialized in card counting and made small group all around casino states from to early 21st century. They all were brilliant at card counting. They form their group of students and professors who even made a recruiting campaign around campus. Students have to take test and at last a very few make their way in the team. It was not new, there were many card counters before who shift the house edge in their favor but this team took card counting to a new level.
They enter in the casinos through a team pretending they do not know each other in disguises with the players give other player indication of hot tables. Their complex way had made it very difficult for authorities to be suspicious of him. Each player has to play its role, gone through rigorous training and making it perfect without raising suspicion. They make methods that would match the real life conditions. They use simple words as code words.
When they knew everything is going to work as they thought, they made their corporation Strategic Investments. They came into notice when they have to move small casinos. They went to Europe so their reputation. The players who made the team quit. Even though new players joined the team but their era was vanished when all know about MIT students.
Casinos make their database from high school yearbook which completely ended their time. He was bribed for gambling as a child to flip baseball cards by other children. He was unaware that he was cheated by his schoolmates and it did not take long since he lost his entire collection. He began to betting on horses, play poker, and other stuff like that.
Gambling became his passion. He bought a mustang of his own which he drove to Las Vegas to seek his luck. He was not old enough to commence gambling in casinos and was living in the streets of Vegas in hot summer. He finds a job in casino which deals mainly in Baccarat and Blackjack.
They decided to meet after his work. Classon challenged him to come up with the idea to make him win. He made a shuffled deck which was set in such a way in the shoe that the player will win. He was trained by them on various methods of Baccarat, Blackjack, Roulette and Craps. He becomes master of pastposted bets and works with the same team for 12 years. His moves made him elite than others. The dealer would be confused as why player is happy as he has is not won huge amount.
It was a brilliant scam as all will believe it was luck. The low amount chips are used to cover the high amount chips and dealer will know about it when the player wants. The method was not new and many have performed it but Richard has taken it to new level. Other gamblers would bet small and add chips if they won but Richard reverse the whole process. He bet huge and then cut to small if he lose. It did not raise suspicion as officials have their eyes on the winning, not on the losses.
He still claims on his website than he trick casinos in a way they can never get their hand on him. He was the first person who developed the card counting technique applied in real life and made people believe that the blackjack system is beatable. Being a math professor and holding masters in physics, he was genius in probability and correlation theorems. Till then he was completely oblivious to the gambling.
Shannon bought him to the Las Vegas and Blackjack got his attention. He played this game many times and seek that the game is mathematically beatable. He scrutinizes every fact of the game in an organized manner. The second chip-bettor with the dark color simply bet four chips straight up on all the numbers in that 3rd section, 25 thru The pastposted black chip would show up camouflaged within the dark roulette chips on the number that won. He obtained them by pinching them off the layout.
Since it would be sloppy and unprofessional—and risk detection of the conspiracy—to have the chip-bettor overtly pass the three roulette chips to the mechanic, the transfer was done while the chip-bettor was spreading his chips on the numbers.
The chip-bettor would one time only place three of his dark chips on a number in the 2nd section, just above the bottom third of the layout, so that the mechanic could go out and snatch them up as he put his own bet in the 2nd dozen box. With all the outstretched arms and hands placing bets all over a congested layout, nobody ever noticed this organized theft of chips. The mechanic never bought in for roulette chips. In that fashion, he could make his 3rd-section move and then be free to leave the table without having to wait for any of his own winning bets to be paid.
By operating in this manner, the mechanic avoided all contact with the dealer. This was the set-up. Dealers always announced the presence of black chips on the inside numbers to their floormen, who always came directly to the table and looked over the hundred-dollar-a-spin roulette player.
The floorman would stay there, watch the dealer spin the ball, and supervise the big payoff if it won. But floormen usually had only one break during a shift, thus we could count on the duration of their presence in the pit. The set-up completed, we went into the move sequence. Since no move could yet be done, they could just spread a few chips anywhere on the layout. It was only when entering into the move phase that the chip-bettors began betting four dark chips on the 3rd-section numbers and the stack of twenty in the 3rd dozen box every spin.
With the team in position on the table, the move would go down as soon as one of the 3rd-section numbers won. Thus the winning chips now under the dolly would be: With his left hand, the MC plays the cards, giving the hit and stand signals to the dealer. At 3rd base, he is the last to play his hand, but the first to receive the dealer's attention after the round is finished and all the cards played. This meant that he would be the first paid on winners, the first to have his chips swept on losers.
The importance of the 3rd base position was the angle it formed between its betting circle and the dealer's head while the dealer performed the mechanics of paying bets on the layout. The blackjack move could also be done from the other positions, but 3rd base was optimum.
Each spot to the right of it made the move slightly tougher. During the play of the hand, the MC never lifts his right hand off the five purple and one red chip hidden on the layout in front of him.
If he loses the hand he simply gets up and goes to another table inside the casino. He cannot make a second bet at the same table because he has been established by the casino as a lowly red-chip player. As the MC goes into his claim, both his hands are completely empty and exposed palms-up. No matter how soft, it is reverberating because a player never touches a dealer's hand at the blackjack table. Even a soft touch to the hand is the equvalent of whacking the dealer in the head with a bat!
What is this nonsense! And the amazing thing about it was that with each step upward in denomination used, the payoff rate only increased! The claimer stands behind the mechanic on either end of a busy craps table. If the shooter rolls a 7 or an 11 on his first roll he wins.
If he rolls a 2, 3 or 12 he loses. When the 7 comes out first, pass-line bets lose. Whenever our pass-line bet lost, the mechanic simply made the same bet for the next roll after the dealer removed his losing chips.
Because of the two-man operation, the table did not have to be abandoned after a losing bet. This was done by picking up the three reds with one hand while laying down the move-chips two purples and one red with the other, all in a split-second. The beauty of this procedure is that the dealer, stickman and boxman never see the claimer until he is already claiming. It was with that philosophy that a good pastposting team distributed the roles of a craps pastpost among its members.
Also, when dividing responsibilities, the pressure on each person was kept at a minimum. The mechanic was responsible only for the mechanics of the move. The claimer's responsibility was limited to claiming the money. The person on the outside, who was not directly involved in the laying or claiming of a move, was in charge of security and observation, the most important role. When doing a move, you always wanted the dealer moving forward and away from your bet, in essence forgetting about you.
Win or lose the betback, the claimer left the table to join the mechanic somewhere outside the casino. Only the team member not involved in the move or claim who served as internal security remained near the table to observe the degree of heat taken by the move.
There is a double-decker version of this move. As mentioned before, when the dice shooter didn't hit a 7 or 11 winner or a 2, 3 or 12 loser on the come-out roll of the dice, a point was established. At that juncture each person having bet on the pass line had the option of making an odds bet, which was simply betting an amount equal to your original pass line wager at the true odds governing the probability that the shooter would again roll the point before rolling the fatal 7 that made both the pass line and odds bet losers.
The pass line bet paid even money, but the odds bet paid true value, which meant that the casino made no profit on it; it was strictly offered as a player courtesy and to stimulate action for the casino. When the shooter makes the point and wins the bet, the mechanic switches both bets after the dealer pays them. The move takes slightly longer than the single-bet switch but much less than double the time. This created a bit of difficulty, but good craps mechanics are able to accomplish the move in spite of it.
The positive factor of the complicated bridge payoff was that when the mechanic did succeed in switching the chips, casino personnel in the craps pit could never conceive it was a move. The move was very powerful and the odds version of it was absolutely mindblowing. This clever move was the mini-baccarat version of the Blackjack Ten-Oh-Five with a special twist: If the MC lost that bet, he would just make the same bet again. There was no reason to leave the mini-baccarat table after losing hands because he was already established as a high roller, contrary to how this cheating operation played out at the blackjack table.
Perhaps the oldest form of cheating at poker is marking the cards. However, in the mid s, a New York optometrist and his hustling girlfriend, Dawn, came up with the best card-marking scheme of all-time. Marking cards with a pastelike substance called daub had already been around for years. Then came contact lenses that improved these card-marking operations immensely, even if they had a hazy reddish color that sometimes bred suspicion upon looking the wearer in the eye. But when this optometrist put his mind to discovering the ultimate card marking scam with the ultimate card marking solution and equipment, the result was just that: His first invention was contact lenses that virtually had no telling tint or shade when inserted in human eyes.
But what really revolutionized the concept of marking cards with luminous solutions was the formula for his invisible solution that made all traces disappear from the cards within forty-five minutes after its application. This meant that if the cards were seized from the poker table and put under infrared light more than forty-five minutes after the solution was applied to them, there would be absolutely no traces of the solution left on the cards.
In effect, this meant that any evidence against the cheaters would self-destruct as it was not really feasible that the cards would find their way under infrared light in such little time. His girlfriend Dawn became the main card-marker. Being a woman naturally gave her feminine advantages.
She already had the handbag filled with cosmetic cases and other items women routinely store inside it. While ostensibly performing such innocuous gestures, Dawn transferred the solution to her fingertips from a sponge inside her handbag. Then with her loaded fingertips she marked the cards as she picked them up to peek at their value.