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The weight of the trailer is carried directly over the rear axle with the hitch mounted in the truck's bed. However, do it with v house voltage, and you'll get a nasty shock. Take the Corvette pinball for a spin. We can supply you with that specific game that you just can't seem to find This safety combined with their light weight has found wide use for these batteries for military applications and now for the emerging electric vehicle markets including electric boats. Murray, whose company was the first to file suit against the Clean Power Plan, said the plan would have forced the closing of of more power plants and increases in power prices.

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The word armature was first used in its electrical sense, i. The parts of an alternator or related equipment can be expressed in either mechanical terms or electrical terms. Although distinctly separate these two sets of terminology are frequently used interchangeably or in combinations that include one mechanical term and one electrical term.

This may cause confusion when working with compound machines like brushless alternators, or in conversation among people who are accustomed to work with differently configured machinery. In most generators, the field magnet is rotating, and is part of the rotor , while the armature is stationary, and is part of the stator. The pole piece of a permanent magnet or electromagnet and the moving, iron part of a solenoid , especially if the latter acts as a switch or relay , may also be referred to as armatures.

In a DC machine, the main field is produced by field coils. In both the generating and motoring modes, the armature carries current and a magnetic field is established, which is called the armature flux. The effect of armature flux on the main field is called the armature reaction.

The demagnetizing effect can be overcome by adding extra ampere-turns on the main field winding. The cross magnetizing effect can be reduced by having common poles. Armature reaction is essential in amplidyne rotating amplifiers. Armature reaction drop is the effect of a magnetic field on the distribution of the flux under main poles of a generator.

Since an armature is wound with coils of wire, a magnetic field is set up in the armature whenever a current flows in the coils.

This field is at right angles to the generator field, and is called cross magnetization of the armature. The effect of the armature field is to distort the generator field and shift the neutral plane. The neutral plane is the position where the armature windings are moving parallel to the magnetic flux lines, that is why an axis lying in this plane is called as magnetic neutral axis MNA. The brushes of a generator must be set in the neutral plane; that is, they must contact segments of the commutator that are connected to armature coils having no induced emf.

If the brushes were contacting commutator segments outside the neutral plane, they would short-circuit "live" coils and cause arcing and loss of power.

Armature reaction causes the neutral plane to shift in the direction of rotation, and if the brushes are in the neutral plane at no load, that is, when no armature current is flowing, they will not be in the neutral plane when armature current is flowing.

For this reason it is desirable to incorporate a corrective system into the generator design. The sound will be from new outdoor electric go karts whizzing around a 1,foot long concrete track that will be built at the rear of the property behind the existing hole miniature golf course and batting cages.

The plan has already been approved by the wetlands commission and received a positive recommendation from the planning and conservation commissions, along with the health department official. We want to make it more for the whole family to come out and fly around in these carts with an electric go-kart motor ," Jonathan Murray said after the vote; Murray represents the owner.

In addition to the track, a small pit building will be constructed for maintenance and storage associated with the track and the 24 electric go kart s.

The go cart motors used are electric and have a ton more torque than a gas model. Go kart electric motors are inexpensive, quite, and have a lot of power. The project is within the year flood plain so compensatory storage will be created on the far side of the wetland, as approved by the wetlands commission. The track will be pitched inward so that any runoff can be collected in a single location and go through a series of filters before being discharged to a wetland at the rear of the site.

TWO North students are on track to build an electric go kart that will reach a hair-raising mph. That a lot of power for a go kart electric motor. Engineering students John Wood and Hayley Blythe, from Sunderland, are currently developing the electric go-kart motor and battery for the electric go kart , which will power their way to the Indianapolis Mile Race. More than , racing enthusiasts attend the event every year and it is watched on television by millions of viewers across the globe.

John and Hayley, who are studying at Sunderland University, have been set the challenge to design, build and race a fast and energy-efficient electric go kart over laps.

The go kart electric motors are very quiet but very powerful. They were invited to compete after a visit to Purdue University in Indiana during a conference with the Society for Motor Manufacturers and Traders. We have a great car with an incredible electric go-kart motor and a strong team spirit, and real potential to compete well and finish in a top position. The evGrandPrix will take place on May 7, After President Barack Obama said early in his presidency that we, as a nation, must start building things again, San Clemente real estate broker George Fortin went to work to build an electric go kart from scratch in the garage of his Talega home with a high performance electric go-kart motor.

Fortin, 55, said he was inspired not only by the words of the president but also a personal conviction to live "greener. His parents learned quickly that no household appliance was safe from their son when he had a screwdriver in his hand. He took apart can openers and hairdryers and even made an electric scooter with the rotisserie motor from his dad's barbecue. Fortin, who grew up in Diamond Bar, began "engineering" electric go karts when he was about 11, including secretly taking apart his dad's first gasoline lawn mower.

But he didn't get serious until he upgraded an old motorized minibike. He said all the adults in the neighborhood had off-road bikes and would regularly ride to the top of a particularly steep hill. Limited by the small motor on his minibike, he was unable to tag along. But I made it work," Fortin said. Fortin, who has no formal training in design or engineering, has never stopped making things, with dozens of self-propelled vehicles and electric go karts made and pulled apart again — always salvaging the parts to make something better.

Trial and error has shown him what works and what doesn't, including gear ratios, chassis design, suspension and steering assemblies. Fortin says he is driven by curiosity about how things work and making things people can use efficiently and safely.

His first Z-Kart had spoked bicycle wheels, but when the motor torque and tight steering tests kept tearing the wheels off, he redesigned it using dune-buggy wheels with motorcycle tires, along with other refinements. The garage is a personal space free from negativity Apple and Microsoft did it. Deciding to buy your child a go kart can be a difficult decision to make.

If you have already decided to take the plunge, then you may be trying to decide whether gas or electric go karts are the better choice. Electric go karts have a number of advantages over karts powered by gas. This article will share with you those advantages. Cheaper Electric go karts are usually much cheaper than their gas counterparts.

Go kart electric motors are easy to find. Safer Go karts that rely on gas for power can be dangerous due to the fact that gasoline is extremely flammable.

Most parents wouldn't be too thrilled with having their kids handling gasoline. Even kids can safely handle the batteries required by electric go karts. Environmentally Friendlier Everyone knows that burning gas releases toxic fumes into the atmosphere. For the environmentally conscious parent, electric go kart motors are the perfect solution.

In addition to helping save the Earth, your kid won't be breathing in any poisonous fumes while he's having fun in his new electric go kart. Noise The engine of gas powered go karts make a lot of noise when running. If you live in a relatively quiet neighborhood, this may cause problems with your neighbors. Electric go kart motors make considerably less noise. Maintenance Maintenance costs for go karts powered by gas can add up quickly. You will need a constant supply of fuel.

In addition to this, gas engines are more susceptible to breakdowns and oil leaks. With electric go kart motors , you can simply recharge the battery time and time again. An electric go kart motor is very simple to get repaired. With electric go kart motors , you just turn the key and press the pedal.

Go kart electric motors have a ton of immediate torque. It's time to trade in the snowblower for the lawn mower, and a new local program could help you put a cleaner running model in your garage. It may not seem like you use a significant amount of gas mowing your lawn. A program in Polk County is trying to change that with a lawn mower exchange. All it takes is a push of a button and the pull of a lever for Office Specialist Gloria Walraven to start mowing the grass. She says, "You just clutch it, pitch it in, and away it goes.

She says, "This is very easy. I was really surprised. People can bring an old working gas powered mower to Midwest Recovery Center in Bondurant to be recycled. Then, you'll get a coupon from the county to buy a battery powered electric lawn motor mower at a discounted rate. Becker says, "The whole premise is to get the less efficient, more polluting gasoline lawn mowers out of circulation and go to something with a little newer technology and less emissions.

He says it happens for a variety of reasons, including lawn care equipment. The EPA says that can cause breathing problems, especially for the young, old and people with asthma. He says, "This is something the average person can do to help reduce air pollution levels.

He says, "It's not going to make a big difference the first year. We're only looking to exchange about 30 to 35 lawnmowers. Becker says replacing one mower is equal to taking one car off the road for 10, miles.

He says the division will track who uses the electric lawn motor mowers, and if the technology makes a difference. He says, "As the program grows from year to year, if we get up to or lawn mowers exchanged, then we'd see a significant reduction. She says, "It was very easy to handle. If you participate in the program, you can choose from two models. A grant from Metro Waste Authority and the county are paying for the program. Spring has sprung almost and lawn care decisions need to be made.

Go Green Wilmette has some useful information that may be helpful whether you renew old contracts, find new services, or plunge in and do it yourself. Pollutant levels are often higher in metropolitan areas where there is concentrated use of lawn equipment. One gas mower emits 87 pounds of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, and 54 pounds of other pollutants into the air every year. One mower running for an hour creates the same quantity of pollutants as eight new cars driving 55 mph for an hour according to the Union of Concerned Scientists.

More than 17 million gallons of gas are spilled each year in the refueling of lawn and garden equipment—more oil than was spilled by the Exxon Valdez! In addition, million gallons of gas are burned yearly by Americans mowing their lawns.

Gas-powered lawn equipment, especially gas blowers, used during the hot summer months contributes to ground level ozone when it is the highest, which aggravates respiratory conditions and throws all kinds of noxious substances into the air, according to the EPA. That is why Wilmette passed an ordinance to protect our health forbidding the use of gas-powered leaf blowers from May September 30 on residential property. Be sure to inform your lawn service of that restriction.

Gas leaf blowers are just a part of the problem. If just 20 percent of U. Many schools are now beginning to teach classes whereby they do an electric lawn tractor conversion by using an electric lawn motor.

The concept is rather straight forward and more info is online on exactly how to complete the job. The Environmental Protection Agency EPA calculates that a single gas lawn mower emits the same amount of volatile organic compounds in an hour as a car driven miles.

And because lawn mowers are used predominantly in hot months when ground-level ozone is the highest, they bring added misery to asthma sufferers. Each year, the EPA says that homeowners spill 17 million gallons of gasoline when refilling their lawn products, six million more gallons than the Exxon Valdez spilled into Prince William Sound in Electric lawn motor mowers are not only better for the environment because they create no exhaust emissions and run cleaner , they also need less maintenance no spark plugs and belts and are easier to use no pull cord—just turn the key.

The electrics also create considerably less noise pollution. Corded mowers also carry the risk of running over the cord, although top models guide the cord to the side of the handle to prevent that.

And cordless mowers can present an environmental hazard if their lead-acid batteries are not disposed of at a recycling facility. Most of the major mower companies make electric mowers, as do many smaller manufacturers, including Sun-lawn, Neuton, Homelite, Yard Machines and Worx. The difficulty is finding stores that carry them. Locally, Home Depot carries one brand—Homelite.

Nick Redwood, department manager of Lowes in Orange, Connecticut, says his store sells a maximum of four different models. He sells only one for every 20 gas mowers. Bill Moore, webmaster for EV-world. John Longo of Milford, Connecticut stopped into Lowes on a recent Saturday to purchase his second electric mower. He says he bought his first 10 years ago, kept it for seven years, then went back to a gas mower.

The clincher for both Moore and Longo is the simplicity of use. She lives in Seymour, Connecticut. The recent lifting of the low speed vehicle LSV ban in Quebec has shone the light of discovery on another electric vehicle manufacturer getting ready to go gangbusters.

Locally designed and manufactured, their vehicle, the Must HD2 has garnered interest from 50 municipalities within " La Belle Province " as well as from individuals. Company president, Jacques Rancourt, says they've sold 15 trucks in the past week and a half since their legal status changed and now expects to move units this year. Being an LSV, it's limited to 25 miles an hour but has a 70 mile range. We think it's a pretty cool looking truck, seemingly capable of handling a range of chores and so we wish the makers of this little brute, " Bonne chance!

The White House said the order, signed Tuesday, will trigger a review of the Clean Power Plan, which seeks to reduce power plant emissions, and will rescind a moratorium on the sale of coal mining leases on federal lands.

Experts say coal's biggest problem isn't a shortage of the fuel to dig or even climate change regulations but cheap and abundant natural gas. Gas prices dropped as advances in drilling such as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, greatly increased the amount of gas on the market. For many utilities, that's made gas a more attractive fuel than coal. From through , the coal mining industry lost about 60, jobs, leaving just over 77, miners, according to preliminary Labor Department data that excludes mine office workers.

In , Ohio was ranked the 12th largest coal producer of the top 25 coal producing states, the ODNR reported. Twenty companies operating 43 mines in 14 Ohio counties produced more than The average number of coal jobs in was 2,, with 1, working directly in surface or underground mines. In , 44 Ohio companies -- more than twice the number in -- operated surface and underground mines in 21 Ohio counties and produced nearly The average number of Ohio coal jobs in was 2,, with 1, jobs directly tied to production.

Christian Palich, president of the Ohio Coal Association, said Trump's actions means "a much brighter future for the coal industry. Coal's share of the U. In Ohio coal-fired power plants generated about 59 percent of the electricity last year, according to the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. Gas was used to generate about 23 percent of Ohio's power in , nuclear about 14 percent and renewables about 2. Gas and renewables have both made gains across the nation, and hundreds of coal-burning power plants have been retired or are scheduled to shutter soon -- trends over which Trump has limited influence.

In Ohio, one gas turbine plant -- owned by American Municipal Power -- is generating electricity. There are currently four gas turbine plants under construction. Another six gas turbine plants are currently planned for Ohio and are expected to begin generating power between and The Obama administration blocked the sale of new coal leases on federal lands in January to determine if the government's coal program was shortchanging taxpayers and exacerbating climate change by effectively subsidizing coal.

In some cases, coal companies bought leases for as little as 1 cent per ton under a program that's supposed to be competitive but often involves just a single bidder. The royalties these companies pay to the government on each ton of coal mined have remained unchanged since Under the moratorium, the Obama administration was considering raising royalty rates as much as 50 percent. Trump has put that proposal on hold. Collectively, Trump's recent orders put the brakes on Obama-era actions would have made it more costly for companies to get coal from public lands and for utilities to burn the fuel.

About 40 percent of coal produced in the U. Companies operating in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, the nation's dominant coal region, control enough reserves to last 20 years. Even before the moratorium, many mining companies were going bankrupt. They have voluntarily delayed their plans to lease tracts holding 1. That's enough fuel to run the nation's coal-fired power plants for two years at current consumption rates.

The eight-state Appalachian region once dominated coal mining but now accounts for less than 25 percent of production after hundreds of mines there closed. Mines in the Midwest and South also have seen declines. Lease applications blocked by the Obama moratorium included more than 1. Burning that coal would unleash an estimated 3. That's equivalent to a year of emissions from million cars. And that is just a small portion of the federal government's coal reserves.

The moratorium had blocked the company's applications to lease more than million tons of coal in Montana. Yet Marshall said more will be needed from Congress for the industry to survive long term, such as investments in so-called clean coal programs under which utilities could capture carbon from burning coal to keep it out of the atmosphere.

In Ohio, Robert Murray, chairman, president and CEO of Murray Energy -- which accounts for about half the coal mined in the state, issued a statement in which he said he and his employees are "extremely pleased.

Murray, whose company was the first to file suit against the Clean Power Plan, said the plan would have forced the closing of of more power plants and increases in power prices.

In , the mining industry saw an increasing number of companies with market caps rising above 50 million for junior players, a huge number after years of declining market caps and de listing for juniors. The survey looked at what issues of concern in predicting the economic outlook for the mining sector in , and asked executives across the Canadian mining sector for their say.

Later, they literally destroyed the EV-1, allowing a few to survive in places such as the Peterson Museum in Los Angeles. A later version, called EPIC, was sold starting in ; it had double the voltage of the first one, extending the range past 50 miles, and switched to an advanced lead-acid battery pack.

Chrysler had also worked on electric cars back in the s, producing in cooperation with Jet a four-passenger electric city car, which were purchased by some organizations but apparently never officially sold.

Likewise, the Neon was originally to be sold in diesel and electric versions. Even more prescient, or at least more determined, was the Tag 2 group in Livonia, Michigan, a group of engineers that produced their first electric vehicle in Mike Hofer, a North Dakota businessman, recognized the potential of the little car, and assembled a group of investors.

He then purchased the company and moved the entire operation to Fargo in December of The Fargo factory manufactured its first vehicle in April The volt GEM could accommodate two passengers and had a top speed of just 20 miles per hour; however, less than two months later, a breakthrough in market conditions occurred when NHTSA National Traffic Safety Administration designated a new class of motor vehicles: Those living in the denser environs of the city would probably want transportation other than the bus sometimes.

In November of , the first utility version of the GEM was produced. These became part of the fleet of utility vehicles at Luke Air Force based, the largest fighter pilot training facility in the world, near Phoenix, Arizona; as of , there were GEM vehicles in service at Luke, out of a fleet of vehicles. By the end of , total production reached 1, vehicles; and by the end of June , the monthly output had surpassed vehicles. By the end of December , total production had hit 5, vehicles. At that time, a past Chrysler executive joined up with a competing electric-car company.

Some claim it was out of spite that DaimlerChrysler quickly acquired GEM; others claim that it was, as DaimlerChrysler said, a matter of building zero-emission vehicles to supplement the slow, expensive research into hydrogen power. By , the GEM line of vehicles included both two and four passenger electric vehicles, as well as two utility vehicles with short and long boxes. The curb weight of the two passenger machine was just 1, pounds, including batteries; while the curb weight of the long box utility vehicle was just pounds more.

Power was the same for the GEM fleet: But the major selling point was the proprietary volt DC on-board charger, which employed the standard volt AC house current. At that time, we drove the GEM cars at a ride-and-drive event. They had plenty of torque, a hallmark of electric vehicles, and good handling, partly because of the independent front suspension and rear trailing-arm suspension.

Rack and pinion steering gave a precise feel; having the batteries close to the ground probably helped the stable feel. The width of just 55 inches was akin to — well, a golf cart. The range of these vehicles was about 30 to 35 miles, dependent upon ambient temperature and terrain, enough for local grocery shopping or even typical commuting; when stopped, the GEMs consume barely any power, so stop and go traffic is not a problem.

The rise of the price of oil has only helped GEM. The battery pack in the current GEM vehicles is the gelatin type, with low maintenance. The steering geometry has been reworked to allow even more precise steering; and the responsive of the electric motor is better. There are even performance upgrades for GEM cars and utility vehicles.

Orange County and San Francisco, places that are friendlier to electric cars, have done even better. The nice thing is you can call the manufacturer up in Fargo. While there is still a proprietary on-board charger for GEM cars, they do, after all, have to plug into something. Utilities appear happy with cars like the GEM, since they even out their demand indeed, the Edison companies were proponents of electric cars in the early s. Normally, utilities see peak demand during the day, and they need to have extra powerplants to fill that demand; but those plants often sit idle at night, an apparently needless expense.

The ideal would be to either have less demand during the day prime air conditioning, industrial use, and computer use times , or more at night. Overnight GEM recharging would provide additional utility revenue without additional capital expense. So you want to change out the original 5 hp electric motor and up it to the 7.

Chances are you want to boost up the top speed, and avoid having those lines of traffic build up behind you in the 35 mph zones! Through suggestions and research, one company I would strongly recommend would be ride-4fun. You will understand why as we go.

When selecting a supplier, verify "new or rebuilt", the manufacturer, ie: Also, check on the shipping rates. Some parts suppliers have hidden "processing and handling fees" for certain parts that can be extremely expensive. Also, check on rebates for returning the core.

It is extremely important that all due caution be used when servicing your GEM. First and foremost, turn the main power control switch to "off" and use wheel chocks on the rear tires. Use the manufacturer recommended jacking points to lift the front right of the vehicle until the tire is just off the ground.

Place a proper jack stand under the frame in the jacking point nearest the front right tire without blocking the end of the electric motor. Remove the tire, and set it aside. Make sure to protect the cable ends! Next you will need to identify and then remove the mount bolts. If there is no sign of damage, proceed with the next step. Be sure to not over tighten the bolts.

Once you have re-connected the power cables, double-check your work before remounting the tire and lowering the vehicle to the ground. Turn the main power switch back "on". You aren't quite done! DO NOT attempt to continuously operate your vehicle without reprogramming this unit. Remember to follow the instructions on the video on their website.

Always turn the main power "off" before performing any service on your vehicle. Once you receive the re-programmed control unit, install it in the same position, and complete all steps before turning the main power switch back "on". Your stock 5hp GE electric motor is designed and programmed to perform at 5hp peak power for approximately 30 minutes.

The increase torque to the wheels provides more efficient operation, added to the 14" tires, you can expect as much as 35 mph, and better handling. Pope Benedict XVI, who has made headlines with his high-style red designer loafers and his Gucci shades, is tooling around the grounds of Vatican City in an electric car outfitted in luxurious Natuzzi Italian white leather. The car, which bears a vague resemblance to a golf cart, has the papal seal on the front and back and was made for short hops behind the walls of Vatican City.

No word on whether there is a papal putting green out there. While visiting with solar and electric car maker, Cruise Car Inc , whose manufacturing and sales operation is in his district, the lawmaker made a plea for a national bipartisan effort to make the switch from fossil fuels to more environmentally-friendly energy sources.

Speaking to the company's employees and assembled media, Buchanan said, "My sense is we've been misled as Americans in many ways for the last 25 years in terms of our energy and where we're going to get it.

Solar, alternate energy, all that stuff is possible; it'll create jobs, it'll make a difference. While obviously not the transportation solution for everybody, Cruise Car is doing a booming business. There's a 60 to 90 day waiting list for some of their vehicles, which can go up to 62 miles on a charge and are powered by the sun, though they can be plugged in for extra charging if necessary. The company is doubling its 10 employees this year and will be moving to a new facility and doing more hiring to keep up with an exponential increase in demand.

Hopefully, more of our representatives will open their eyes to the many benefits of a greener economy and make the changes needed to speed things along. The price of gas is getting out of hand everywhere. The customized vehicle can accommodate 4 adults and comes with a police light bar and "Polis" markings. There are no gears to shift, so operation is simple. The force is also considering implementing bicycles. When bored, horses often chomp down on a fence post and suck air.

One theory holds that this gives them a buzz. Another holds that this is baloney. And that is the purpose of a pedal tavern. Known by a variety of names, a pedal tavern is a multi-rider bike built around a bar. Ten pedalers sit around the perimeter, and there are spots for six passengers and one presumably sober driver.

Many places forbid imbibing while pedaling, but PedalPubs run in 28 cities around the U. On a brisk Tuesday recently, we went with 10 pedalers to Indy.

That explains the automotive-grade brakes. Our bike also had a Volvo rear axle and a VW steering wheel. Its owners, brothers Brian and Stephen Lindsay, say that chassis parts are different on each of their bikes. Our ride started with acceleration testing. We went just an eighth of a mile before our winded, half-stewed pedalers threatened to get off.

We touched 12 mph briefly, then we experienced terminal foot float, a sort of redline in which feet fly off the pedals. Also, we were gasping. We then settled into a relaxed 5-mph tour of the city. Cruising faster than that or climbing a hill can get tough, and working hard while drinking hard seems like a recipe for vomiting. The HandleBar is a novel way to see a city and a fun means of staying busy as you get buzzed. As our blood-alcohol content crept up, so did our cruising speed and the volume of our voices, the former reaching 7 mph and the latter nearing obnoxious.

The Lindsays agree that bachelorette parties are the worst. Tours book in two-hour chunks, and with time running low, we tried one last top-speed run down a gentle grade. The speed readout flickered past 12 mph, and then the world went dark. Maybe we blacked out. Or maybe we entered a tunnel and lost the GPS signal. Nobody seems to remember. Lasers already help police spot speeders; soon, they could identify drunk drivers, too.

A team of Polish researchers has developed a roadside laser to detect alcohol vapor. They aim across the road a laser with a wavelength that is absorbed by the vapor.

But there's also a competition for those who prefer vehicles that ride on rails, rather than travel on roads. Competitors in the Delsbo Electric contest work toward the goal of building the most efficient battery-electric rail vehicle possible. Held on a stretch of tourist-railroad track near the town of Delsbo, Sweden, it's open to college students. This year, the winner was a sleek silver railcar called Eximus 1, entered by a team from Sweden's Dalarna University.

Eximus 1 achieved an efficiency rate of 0. Delsbo Electric contestants have their entries' efficiency measured over a 3. Eximus 1 completed the course in roughly 20 minutes, but only used its motor for only seconds of that time. With steel wheels on steel rails, trains have have relatively little friction to deal with compared to cars, and Eximus 1 took advantage of this by coasting for long stretches.

Delsbo Electric entrants must also be able to carry one to six passengers, with a minimum average weight of 50 kilograms pounds per person. Since efficiency is calculated per person, vehicles that carry more people are not inherently penalized. The vehicles demonstrated at Delsbo Electric take efficiency to the extreme, but another technology under development may be more applicable in the real world.

Trains have used electric power—from overhead wires or a current-carrying third rail—since the early 20th century. Now researchers at Britain's University of Sheffield are trying to equip them with vehicle-to-grid V2G capability similar to what has been proposed for electric cars. Trains don't have onboard battery packs, so the electricity would be stored in external packs at stations, and the electric cars in their parking lots.

Researchers are in talks to set up a demonstration version of the system—called TransEnergy—on either the London Underground subway system or a British passenger-rail line. Usually operating on trackage that railroads no longer need, they offer low-speed rides through scenic vistas, including locations that tourists often can't reach by car. But along with historic railcars on many lines come older engines, usually powered by diesel engines decades old without a single piece of emission-control equipment.

It seats 32 people, and its roof is covered with square feet 9. The returning leg, downhill, requires little energy, although the article doesn't mention whether regenerative braking is used to recapture the car's otherwise wasted momentum on the return trip. The solar electric rail car is roughly 27 feet long and 6.

The electrical systems were provided by Hungarotrain, while GanzPlan contributed documentation. In this article as you may have guessed I am going to explain how to check a solenoid for problems. On a typical solenoid there are four post called terminals. There are usually two large and two small.

Battery voltage is applied to the two small terminals to activate the solenoid which then connects the two large terminals together. From time to time the two large terminals get buggered up and the solenoid needs to be replaced.

To check the solenoid is fairly simple though. First thing we need to do is disconnect any cables from the two large terminals.

Be sure to wrap the cable ends in tape and keep them separate from each other. Then set your voltmeter to OHMS and place a probe on each large terminals see first image below. With the key off and the cart in a neutral position there should be no reading. Now with the cart in foreword position and key on step on the accelerator, you should hear a click coming from the solenoid, if you do then set you voltmeter to OHMS and place a probe on each large terminals see second image below.

You should have a reading of 0 to 0. Anything higher and it means that solenoid has buggered up contacts and should be replaced. If you did not here a click coming from your solenoid then grab your voltmeter and set it to dc volts on the scale and place a probe on each of the small terminals.

With the key on and the cart in foreword step on the accelerator. You should see pretty close to full battery voltage. If you do see full battery voltage and there is no click, the coil inside the solenoid has failed and will need to be replaced. If your meter remains at 0 then there is a problem somewhere else in the cart. When buying a new solenoid besure to buy one that matches your carts voltage, most golf carts are either 36v or 48v.

It will usally tell you on the side of the solenoid what voltage it is. If it doesn't, we must first determine if activation voltage is present at the small terminals 1 and 2.

Connect a voltmeter across the connections at 1 and 2 and activate the system. To activate the system put the car in the run mode, key switch on, car in forward and the accelerator pedal pushed. If your voltmeter displays the system voltage and the solenoid does not "click", then the solenoid is defective and will need to be replaced. Make the connection just like this. B The Golf Cart Solenoid does not "click" and you do not read system voltage.

This tells us that one of the voltage potentials is missing at connection 1 and or 2. To find out which potential is missing, leave the red lead of the voltmeter connected on terminal 2, the positive connection usually a blue or red wire. However, wire colors may vary.

Ensure proper diagnosis by using the correct diagram for the make and year of your car. Place the black lead of the voltmeter to the battery's negative post on the number six battery the last battery in series from the first positive battery connection to the car.

Activate the system as before, if your voltmeter reads system voltage, the positive input is correct. This means the key switch, micro switches and wiring are good and you are missing the negative input. Positive connection at terminal 2. Continue the diagnosis process by connecting the black negative lead from the voltmeter to terminal 1 and the red lead of the voltmeter to battery 1's positive post the first positive connection to the car.

For metal or production work it's just not beefy enough for that. It bogs down when working with aluminum unless you go really slowly. I did use it to drill pilot holes in an aluminum plate though. It took a long time and required WD but the pilot holes made for perfect location drilling at the drill press afterwards without needing to measure or make jigs.

I needed a low RPM for the CNC drilling which this unit allows me to do by adjusting the speed down with the provided speed control knob. Good value, works as it is advertised Excellent spindle for the price. I have been using a 2 hp router on my CNC with the ensuing noise and power consumption.

I would have preferred a 1 hp or approximately watts air cooled spindle with a higher RPM for a competitive price, but this one seems to be a good entry unit. Installation was easy, except that no wiring diagram or schematic came with the unit, so I had to go back online to see what went where. The bolts for the clamp did not come with nuts or even the metric size and thread count to accommodate using them.

I do almost all my work with hardwoods and discovered that W is adequate thus far. This vise is heavy and bigger than I expected. Nice product I don't you could find a comparable product at twice the price.

I did recommend this for general cnc use. Incredible machine, high quality parts, very heavy and stable.

No Product is Worthless Indeed, no product is worthless, it can always be used as a bad example. Well, in my opinion, this is that product. It arrived in a battered cardboard box and I was thinking it may be damaged.

The internal packaging would be good for a lightweight item but this item is heavy. A layer of thin bubble wrap is not enough. I unwrapped it and it appeared to be ok. But one of the axis screws was not exactly straight Shipment Damage? The x-y axis did operate, but not very smoothly and I did adjust the loose alignment screws that made it somewhat better. I then ask myself, what good are the calibrated knobs without an indexing mark.

I later found one mark on the bottom side of the table and the other facing toward the rear Who assembled this one?? It does what it is supposed to do. I have a shapeoko 3 and after soldering in a female connector I was able to utilize the sensor, and it has made a huge difference in cuts involving multiple endmills. One word of caution, you will probably need to use sourcerabbit or universal gcode sender to send jobs and use the sensor. For whatever reason, carbide motion isn't compatible.

But honestly it's a relief not to have to deal with Carbide Motion anymore. Good one and serve the purpose. Please note that you need the latest GRBL.

I wish, it should have some visual indicator as well to indicate when the Z-axix bit touches it. Big glob of glue on bottom. A big glob of hot glue keeps the touch plate from sitting level on the table. Cutting away the excess fixed things. Other than that, it seems to work just fine. By Rich in SLO. Nice arbor, good price. Seems like a really nice arbor. All of the surfaces that need to be ground are.

Worked just like it should. I cut a 46 tooth gear using this arbor with a gear cutter it turned out great. There was no problems with this or any other grizzly tool I have tried. One thing I was unsure of was if it would have left or right hand threads as it turned out it was left hand not really an issue for me. Limited by it's long nut. Works OK, but it's long length of the nut makes it less useful than if it was much shorter.

The key is easily removed for when you have keyless saws. Slide table made nice addition to my workshop I adapted this slide table to my table top drill press, and I have it smoothly tracking X and Y to less than 0. Pleasantly surprised It took me a couple of days to finally pull the trigger on this XY table. I couldn't decide if it was worth the additional cost compared to the two other similar tables available. The other tables are a traditional gib style and I didn't feel like messing around with cleaning those up and adjusting them.

The couple of youtube reviews I watched showed they had a bit of flex to the tables as well. This one "looked" solid in the pictures, so I figured I would take my chances. I'm glad I did. ZERO flex or play in the table. I mean this thing is rock solid. Three linear bearings per axis and one split delrin or nylon bushing used to lock or tighten axis travel. Very pleased with the compound table Very pleased with the compound table. So we bought this and love it When you have an Oak tree limb and what to make something with but don't have anything to mill it down.

Five Stars Works well as designed. Tough but fun and rewarding DIY kit. I spend a lot of time reading up on different do-it-yourself CNC machines and kits.

The Zen Toolworks machine looked like the best fit for me. Since I had checked things out prior to getting it, I knew that it wasn't an easy or quick project to build. However, the wiki and forum site for Zen Toolworks have had almost every answer I have needed when I got stuck building or testing the machine. As another review said, this is not a complete kit to make a fully operating machine. You have to buy the electronics separately, which allows you to customize the machine to your perfered configuration.

In addition you must buy a spindle motor motor the bits are attached to. Four Stars It's a great machine and very simple to put together. I had it assembled in less than one day. I hooked up the v and the VFD turned on fine, then added 4 wires for the motor.

I used 4 core from the hardware shop at 70cents pet foot. The girlfriend soldered the connections and we fired it up and the motor worked great. So, far so good. So far, so good. The Huanyang motor seems well made, and nicely machined for it's price.

Make sure your machine is strong enough to support it. They even balanced the ER nut on my motor. Water cooling seems to work well enough to keep the motor barely over ambient temperatures. Make sure you have either a big enough water supply and or a cooler rig. Huanyang still does not hook up the ground terminals inside the case, which is unsafe, so it's either ground the motor externally using the screw for the plug, open the motor and void your warranty, or go ungrounded, which is unsafe.

The 4-pin plug on the motor is a marginal choice. The unit was shipped from China and took a little over a week to arrive. I am very satisfied with the integrity, dialogue, and response from the seller. I think it is important for potential purchasers to keep in mind the VFD is a product from China. English is a second language for the supplier seller, which is far better than Mandarin being a no language for me. The manual received with the unit is not particularly well translated, but it is helpful.

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