This level of control reaches the flagrant. In several, boaters keep a second car so they can use it to get to their boat after flying in. If I manifest falsity or weakness in my determination, I consent that my brothers and comrade soldiers in the army of the Pope may cut off my hands, my feet and slit my throat from ear to ear. Clarence Nevis and his sister Lorraine lived there with their parents until their death, and continued to live there until February Reinhart identified the firm Pao San and Co.
Most important, the first recorded evidence of organized Mafioso activity in the United States identifies the Mazzini networks with General Pike's guerrilla war against the "Reconstruction'' South. Nothing depicts this arrangement better than the stories of the first New Orleans godfathers, Joseph Macheca and Charles Matrenga. The first of the Mazzini networks drifted in before and during the Civil War.
A member who was properly sponsored could be transferred from one city to another, from one family to another. By contemporary accounts, the activities of the Macheca gang were indistinguishable from those of the Klan. Seymour's funding and political direction came from August Belmont, the Rothschilds' official business agent in the United States. The campaign, such as it was, was described as follows in the New Orleans Picayune: This popular and pleasant-mannered gentleman Macheca organized and commanded a company of Sicilians, strong, known as the Innocents.
They wore sidearms and when they marched the streets they shot at every Negro that came in sight. They left a trail of a dozen dead Negroes behind them. Steadman, managing the Seymour campaign, forbade them from making further parades and they were disbanded. One historian of the Mafia notes,. Belmont's presidential candidate ran on a program drafted at the Seligman and associated Our Crowd banking houses in New York: Pike, Macheca, and their paramilitary irregulars unleashed a wave of violence across the South that buried Lincoln's Reconstruction policy not many years after the President himself.
The historical record shows that Macheca's group in New Orleans, which started out by shooting blacks for the copperhead Our Crowd banks in New York, had proved its mettle by the early s. It became the jumping-off point for the organization of the mob throughout the United States.
Macheca provided a base for Mazzini's syndicate organizer of the first years of the Mafia, Giuseppe Esposito. A close Mazzini associate, Esposito fled Sicily in the early s, arriving in New Orleans to make contact with Macheca.
Esposito traveled through the United States, pulling together Italian-speaking secret societies and establishing inter-city communications where none had existed before. From Esposito's tour onwards, the Sicilian-speaking secret societies became crime syndicates. Mazzini's representative on the scene had absolute authority over the local godfathers, even over the leader of the New Orleans base organization.
Macheca's "Mafia leadership was eclipsed briefly," according to one historian, "from to , when he temporarily deferred to Giuseppi Esposito. Macheca's death left a deep impression on the syndicates; possibly this is the point where the mob decided to "go legit," its strategy ever since. In order to do so, the Matrenga gang turned back to the Hofjuden.
The vehicle for the New Orleans mob's conversion to "legitimate business" in was another Romanian Jew, an immigrant from the Romanian province of Bessarabia, whence Yechiel Bronfman had migrated to Canada some ten years earlier.
The new immigrant, one Samuel Zemurray , obtained financing from a group of Boston and New York Our Crowd banks, and bought out a portion of the Macheca gang's shipping interests.
A historian comments, "Joe Macheca's shipping line merged with four others to form the great United Fruit Company, which remains one of the largest of all U. Nonetheless, the Sicilian mob was remembered with nostalgia. When Charles Matrenga died in , the entire board of United Fruit turned out for the funeral.
The Bronfmans, we will document later, founded and bankrolled the modern-day Murder Incorporated , Permindex , the firm that police agencies in the United States and Europe have suspected of organizing the murders of John F. As old Charles Matrenga withdrew into a "legitimate" back-ground, the day-to-day operations of the New Orleans mob fell into the hands of Sylvestro Carolla, who, in turn, passed the godfather's mantel onto Carlos Marcello in the early s.
And, according to sources in the Drug Enforcement Administration , 20 percent of cocaine smuggled into the United States arrives on the ships of United Brands. Opium and morphine, in the early days of the mob, were not illegal drugs; heroin only came into circulation at the turn of the century and was not made illegal as a prescription drug until But the British dope-runners had a direct hand in the infiltration of narcotics into the United States, through the third wave of crime-tainted immigration, from China.
Not coincidentally, the first large-scale importing of opium into the United States commenced with the "coolie trade," referred to by its British Hong Kong and Shanghai sponsors as the "pig trade.
In alone, , coolies were brought into the country, feeding an opium trade estimated at nearly , pounds of gum opium and over 53, pounds of prepared smoking opium.
Often these Chinese "indentureds" would put their entire earnings toward bringing their families over to the U. This traffic in Chinese immigrants represented one of the earliest channels of opium into the country, and laid the foundations for the later mass-scale drug trade out of the Chinatowns developed in San Francisco, Vancouver, and other West Coast cities during this period. The British firms misrepresented the morphine as a "non-addictive" pain killer and even had the audacity to push it as a cure for opium addiction.
The British Brahmins in the U. The nature of the London-centered cycle of international trade from cotton to opium further cultivated a group of British financial allies in the United States. Some of these allies are comprador trading families whose activities span the entire period from the inception of the opium traffic through to the Second World War. Most important among these groups is the Astor family dynasty, whose founder, John Jacob Astor made his fortune in Chinese opium sales. One of his biographers reports,.
Since according to Dr. Kenneth Scott Latourette , quicksilver and opium did not become regular articles of import into China by Americans till about , Astor must have been one of the pioneers of their introduction. Leveraged into investments in Manhattan real estate, John Jacob Astor's opium earnings formed the basis of one of America's largest family fortunes.
Participation in the China opium trade, a de facto monopoly of the East India Company at the time Astor took part in the traffic, was a privilege extended only to Americans the East India Company thought deserving. Other American firms active in the Canton trade did not touch opium. Astor provided funds for the escape of his attorney Aaron Burr after Burr murdered Alexander Hamilton; at the time, Burr was a British intelligence agent. Burr's control, and the man to whom he fled after the murder of Hamilton, was East India Company employee Jeremy Bentham.
The leading British merchant bank Baring Brothers, which remodeled the old East India Company as an instrument for the opium traffic after William Pitt's installation as British Prime Minister in , acquired a group of business partners and brothers-in-law in Quaker Philadelphia.
The family the Barings married into was William Bingham's, reportedly the richest in the United States at the turn of the nineteenth century. Barings were prominent throughout the first years of the China traffic, founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank in , and retained their family seat on its directing "London Committee" as of the HongShang's annual report.
One historian describes how closely the Bingham group aped the British oligarchy: Bingham was a most enthusiastic admirer of the British financial system which he desired to see copied in America. Immense wealth enabled the Binghams to import fashions, and copy the Duke of Manchester's residence in Philadelphia. The Binghams finally achieved their ambitions by uniting two daughters to foreign aristocrats: Another Philadelphia family that united itself with Baring Brothers was that of millionaire Stephen Girard , 43 whose interests survived under the family name, in Philadelphia's multibillion dollar Girard Bank and Trust.
Several of the old "Boston Brahmin" families, however, made it into the mainstream of the 19th century opium traffic, alongside the well-remembered British names of Jardine , Matheson , Sassoon , Japhet , and Dent. The Perkins and Forbes families achieved notoriety in the traffic after the East India Company's monopoly expired in , and after the Astors had ceased to be an important factor.
William Hathaway Forbes became so prominent an associate of the British trading companies that he joined the board of directors of the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank in , two years after its founding.
Hathaways, Perkins, and Forbes operated through a joint outlet, Russell and Company, formed around the Perkins family shipping empire, a "business reaching from Rio to Canton. The China clippers of Russell and Company made not only Perkins's fortune, but most of the city of Boston's. Baring Brothers , the premier merchant bank of the opium traffic from to the present day, also maintained close contact with the Boston families.
John Murray Forbes was U. Morgan and Perkins, among other things, provided the major endowments for Harvard University. Exemplary is the case of Morgan partner Willard Straight , who spent the years in China as assistant to the notorious Sir Robert Hart, chief of the Imperial Chinese Customs Service, and hence the leading British official in charge of conducting opium traffic. Afterwards he became head of Morgan bank's Far Eastern operations. What makes them especially interesting is the intricate trail that leads investigators of present-day drug financing back to the same American families and American banks.
In Part III, we will blow the cover of Philadelphia's old "Main Line" Quaker families, whose present generation controls not only the leading supply of illicit amphetamines in the United States, but funds a whole array of street-level drug- trafficking operations as well.
Morgan's case deserves special scrutiny from American police and regulatory agencies, for the intimate associations of Morgan Guaranty Trust with the identified leadership of the British dope banks see Part II, Section 7. Jardine Matheson's current chairman David Newbigging , the most powerful man today in Hong Kong, is a member of Morgan's international advisory board. The chairman of Morgan et Cie. But perhaps the most devastating example of continuity among the corrupted American families involves the descendants of old John Jacob Astor.
The old Boston families who made their fortunes on the narcotics traffic were the ones whom old Joseph Kennedy strove to imitate when he obtained his British liquor delivery contacts during Prohibition, and the same ones who staffed his son's Administration.
First, the Royal Institute of International Affairs was founded. The purpose of this institution had been set forth over 40 years before in the last will and testament of empire-builder Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes had called for the formation of a "secret society" that would oversee the reestablishment of a British empire that would incorporate most of the developing world and recapture the United States see Part II, Section 7.
Toward this objective, Rhodes's circle, including Rudyard Kipling, Lord Milner, and a group of Oxford College graduates known as "Milner's Kindergarten," constituted the Round Table at the turn of the 20th century.
In , the same grouping founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs as the central planning and recruitment agency for Britain's "one world empire. Americans knew it as Prohibition. Prohibition brought the narcotics traffic, the narcotics traffickers, and large-scale organized crime into the United States.
Illegal alcohol and illegal narcotics made up two different product lines of the same multinational firm. The British, through their distilleries in Scotland and Canada, and the British, from their opium refineries in Shanghai and Hong Kong, were the suppliers.
The British, through their banks in Canada and the Caribbean, were the financiers. Through their political conduits in the United States, the British created the set of political conditions under which the United States might be won back by means other than the failed Balkanization plan of the Civil War period. Against the outcry of the League of Nations and virtually all the civilized world, the British stubbornly fought to maintain opium production in the Far East, expanding the illegal supply of heroin, just as the drug went out of legal circulation in America in In interviews with the authors, Drug Enforcement Administration officials have emphasized the similarity of the alcohol and narcotics modus operandi.
When the agents of Arnold Rothstein and Meyer Lansky made their first trips to the Far East in the s, they purchased heroin from the British with full legality. What the American gangsters did with the drug was their own business; the British opium merchants were merely engaging in "free enterprise. The identical explanation was offered by an official of the British Bank of the Middle East, which now services the Far East drug traffic through a smugglers' market in gold bullion in Dubai, on the Persian Gulf.
The greater the extent of intergang blood-shed, the less obvious their role would be. In fact, the British distillers could provoke such events at will by withholding needed inventory of bootleg alcohol. He became a senior partner in the investment house of Kuhn Loeb immediately on demobilization. It is a fraud of the highest order that Prohibition represented a mass social protest against the "evils" of alcohol.
Like the environmentalist movement and other present day anti-progress cults, the Women's Christian Temperance Union WCTU and its Anti-Saloon League offshoots were a small, well-financed and highly organized circle that enjoyed the financial backing of the Astors, the Vanderbilts, the Warburgs, and the Rockefellers.
Rockefeller I was hood- winked by Lord Beaverbrook colleague and former Canadian Prime Minister MacKenzie King into not only bankrolling the WCTU, but providing it with the services of the foundation's entire staff of private investigators. It was run by Jane Addams , who studied the Fabian Society's London settlement house Toynbee Hall experiment and came to the United States to launch a parallel project which later produced the University of Chicago.
Oberlin College was founded by British "Christian missionaries" in the decades leading up to the Civil War. Like the ancient anti-Christian Manichean cult, Oberlin was organized around the principle that the material world was wholly evil; all students i.
From Oberlin's student body some of the most violent radical abolitionist terrorists were recruited, trained and deployed and safe housed during the Civil War. Many of these women were drawn from the Manichean cult at Oberlin. These three British cults agitated nationally for Prohibition. While the WCTU and Anti-Saloon League staged well-publicized and frequently violent raids against saloons, the more sophisticated Fabian Settlement House social workers of Jane Addams used the unique conjuncture of the recently passed Seventeenth Amendment certifying women's voting rights in national elections and the concentration of much of the adult male population on the war effort to vote up the Eighteenth Amendment making Prohibition the law of the land.
The Amendment was fully ratified by ; however, the Volstead Act that defined the federal enforcement procedures was not scheduled for implementation until January 6, The three-year lead time was critical for the establishment of a tightly organized crime syndicate, which was being organized out of Canada and Our Crowd banking circles in New York: In Canada, a brief Prohibition period was principally enacted by order of Her Majesty's Privy Council to create the financial reserves and bootlegging circuit for the U.
In this period Canada's Hofjuden Bronfman family established the local mob contacts in the U. Louis in the 12 months leading up to the Volstead enforcement. One such Brooklyn recruit was Al Capone. The British oligarchy did much more than supply the gutter elements of the crime syndicates with their stock in trade. To a surprising extent, the Anglophile portion of America's upper crust joined the fun. The case of Joseph Kennedy , who owed his British contracts for liquor wholesaling to the Duke of Devonshire , and later married his daughter into the family, is notorious see Part III.
In some respects more revealing is the strange case of Robert Maynard Hutchins, the President of the University of Chicago from to John of Jerusalem, swearing an oath of chivalric fealty to the head of the order, the British monarch. Under the guise of "social studies research," several well-known University of Chicago postgraduate students received their apprenticeships in the service of the Capone gang: Alinsky, in fact, used the organizational model of the Capone Mob to build up a criminal youth gang infrastructure in Chicago during the early s that assumed street-level control over drug trafficking and related criminal operations run 30 years earlier through the Capone gang.
When the Our Crowd sponsors of Capone's initial deployment to Chicago determined at the close of Prohibition that a more "civilized" cutout was desired, Alinsky was the channel for bringing Frank Nitti into the Mob. Furthermore, Hutchins was simultaneously the president of a little-known Nevada foundation called the Albert Parvin Foundation which several congressional committees investigating organized crime cited as a front for Las Vegas gambling receipts.
Mounting the drug invasion. The United States' fourteen-year experiment in Prohibition accomplished precisely what its British framers had intended. Ralph Salerno , an internationally recognized authority and historian on organized crime, a law enforcement consultant and former member of the New York City Police Department's intelligence division, succinctly summarized the effect of Britain's Prohibition gameplan in his book, The Crime Confederation: Prohibition helped foster organized crime in several ways.
It was the first source of real big money. Until that time, prostitution, gambling, extortion and other activities had not generated much capital even on their largest scale. But illegal liquor was a multibillion dollar industry. It furnished the money that the organization later used to expand into other illegal activities and to penetrate legitimate business.
Prohibition also opened the way to corruption of politicians and policemen on a large scale. It began the syndicate connection with politics and it demoralized some law enforcement groups to the point where they have never really recovered. The manufacture and distribution of illegal liquor here and the importation of foreign-made liquor gave the men who were organizing crime experience in the administration and control of multibillion dollar world businesses with thousands of employees and long payrolls.
Men who had never before managed anything bigger than a family farm or a local gang got on-the-job training that turned them into leaders developing executive qualities. Mass evasion of the Volstead Act also put the average citizen in touch with criminals, resulting in tolerance and eventually admiration and even romantic approval of them.
It permanently undermined respect for the law and for the people enforcing it. Ever since Prohibition the man in the street has accepted the idea that cops can be bought. The combined revenues of the illicit whiskey and drug trade during Prohibition had constituted a multibillion dollar black market booty.
While families like the Kennedys and Bronfmans "made out like bandits" in the early s transition to "legitimate" liquor trade, the overall financial structure for maintaining an organized crime infrastructure demanded diversification into other areas of black market activity only marginally developed previously. In the interim, the Our Crowd-British crime syndicate turned to casino gambling and associated enterprises as the immediate area for expansion. The Lansky syndicate took the opportunity of Nevada's passage of specific regulations legalizing casino operations to turn that no-man's-land into a desert resort to house all the West Coast criminal operations that had previously been run on pleasure boats 12 miles off the coast of Hollywood.
Lansky also moved into the Caribbean, preparing the way for the British offshore complex of unregulated banking. Nixon's war on drugs. It is not widely known that President Nixon was a casualty in the war against Britain's drug invasion of the United States. By Nixon became profoundly aware that the proliferation of drug abuse among the nation's youth had become a problem of such monumental significance that all his efforts to institute a long-range program of peace-through-development would be meaningless unless combined with a ruthless crackdown on the poison that threatened to wreck the nation's future leadership and its productive sector.
At the same time that Nixon generically understood the top-down nature of the problem, he and his assistants scarcely understood that by going after the drug infrastructure they were taking on the entire British oligarchy and the entire underpinnings of the Eurodollar market and the People's Republic of China.
Had Nixon understood the drug problem as a London-Peking problem, he would have perhaps been better prepared to deal with the "inside-outside" attack against his Presidency. Harvest Books, , p. Richard Morris, The Peacemakers: Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars, p. In addition to the Chinese Hong merchants who collaborated with the British opium houses and the run-of-the-mill pirates and river rats that the British recruited into their service as the "eyes and ears" in Canton and the interior, the Hakkas, a people living in the southern province of Kwangsi who were under the strong influence of the Heaven and Earth Society Triads were particularly important to the British operations.
The Hakkas were used by both the British and their Triad allies as a grassroots bludgeon against the Emperor. He was in a trance for 40 days in which he was supposedly born again and then, using a translation of the King James Bible, he created a new religion based on the notion of "The Chosen People. Hung served as the "prophet," and a Hakkas Triad member, Yang Hsin-Ch'ing, served as the recruiter and military commander of the movement.
Yang was in the employ of the British as an opium runner on the Pearl River. The Taiping-Triad forces also played a significant role in the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty that led to the republic of China under its president Dr. Sun Yat-sen also a member of the "Hung Society" , although the organization was outlawed as treasonous and terrorist in For further reading on the Hung-Triad Societies see: The International League for Historical Research, , pp.
Brian Ingles, The Forbidden Game: Charles Scribner's, , chapter Morse signed all his published articles under the name "Brutus. Bernant, The Cousinhood New York: Literary Guild of America, , pp. Statesman and Jurist Baltimore, I; contains a profile of B'nai B'rith and 44 Jewish organizations. Gray, Conspiracy in Canada. Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc.
The political error the Okhrana made in its use of the Protocols was to generalize the notion of a Zionist conspiracy to include all of Jewry. The Protocols were then used by British intelligence operatives within the Okhrana to unleash pogroms against Russian Jews in conjunction with and following the " Revolution" destabilization of the Witte government.
Sources in Mexico made this oath available to the authors and have confirmed that it is authentic. It should be noted, however, that the Knights of Columbus in the United States is a very different organization from this Mexican branch, and the two should not be confused. I and II, New York: Chandler, Brothers in Blood, p. Russell and Russell, Beeching, Chinese Opium Wars.
Porter, John Jacob Astor, p. Miriam Beard, History of Business, Vol. University of Michigan Press, , p. Little, Brown, and Company, , ff. Wechsberg, Merchant Bankers, p. A Social History New York: Ingles, The Forbidden Game.
Jeffrey Steinberg, "Robert M. Shaper of an American oligarchy," The Campaigner, Vol. The Legacy New York: Hank Messick, Lansky New York: Berkley Medallion Books, , p. Ralph Salerno and John S. Doubleday and Company, Inc. When this is done, we will have reconstructed the Annual Report of Dope, Incorporated, including balance sheet, board of directors, senior operating officers, table of organization, and subsidiaries.
In the files of these agencies, in the minds of solitary investigators, and, to a surprising extent, in the public record itself, the pieces of the puzzle have existed for years. Fitting them together into a single picture is the task of this investigation.
But the puzzle is not a jigsaw game, in which the picture is assembled by fitting the pieces together side-by-side. As a first approximation, it would be better for the reader to imagine a set of clear plastic overlays, each of which contains part of the picture; laid one on top of the other, they complete the puzzle. The different overlays of this puzzle are these: The resulting picture is comprehensive: The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank and related companies finance the opium trade.
In this, they are acting as designated agents of the British monarchy, through the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Not only do they control the expatriate Chinese legmen of the opium trade, but they do so as part of an agreement negotiated between Mao Tse-tung and the Royal Institute of International Affairs, by the Hong Kong and Shanghai's leading representatives!
The gold and diamonds side of the dirty money laundering operations, under the immediate control of Britain's Zionist Hofjuden Court Jews , is part of the same machine. From there the trail leads directly into the American crime syndicate, through the Hofjuden Bronfman family.
The world illegal drug traffic is not only the world's biggest swindle and subversive agency: We know their names and addresses, and know how to mop them up. Banking and the World's Biggest Business Assembled as one picture, the hard evidence available from the Drug Enforcement Administration and other law enforcement bodies leaves only one possible conclusion: The drug "industry" is run as a single integrated world operation, from the opium poppy to the nickel bag of heroin sold on an inner-city street corner.
Not only is illegal drug traffic under the control of a single world network, but opiates traffic in particular is without doubt the best-controlled production and distribution system of any commodity in international trade, illegal or legal.
Investigators are daunted by the fact that the solution to the problem is so damned obvious. Imagine Edgar Allan Poe's fictional purloined letter, photographically enlarged to 8 by 20 feet, and used as wallpaper; then, imagine the French police attempting to find it with magnifying glasses.
That is net, not gross, annual sales of drugs, plus related illicit payments. How can such activity avoid sticking out wildly, especially in areas of concentration such as the Far East? Because the British monarchy organized most of the Far East to conform to the drug traffic! This and related precious metals and gems trade were designed around illegal money in the first place!
The financial world, remember, is one in which the stock market will do flips over a measly few hundred million dollars' difference in the weekly reported figures for the American money supply. Although most of the necessary evidence has long been available, both investigators and the public prefer to see world drug traffic and related illegal activity as a montage of movie villains: Far Eastern warlords, free-lance smugglers, jowly gangsters, and corrupt politicians.
Such individuals figure into the world drug traffic, but as the arms and legs of a top-down operation, under the immediate control of the British and allied monarchies. The most striking single fact for this conclusion is that the price series for heroin at retail level in major American cities show virtually total uniformity.
Law enforcement records show that, within the acceptable range of 3 to 6 percent purity at the street level, the price of heroin has been constant between widely disparate distribution points during the past ten years. Arrests of local distribution chains, internecine warfare among drug-traffickers, interdiction of smuggling routes, the virtual elimination of the Turkish opium supply after , the scouring of Asian and European transit points, and local changes in political and growing conditions in the Golden Triangle growing area, all have failed to have any effect on the single world heroin price!
The few exceptions prove the rule, and consist mainly of sharp temporary drops in some local retail prices, attributed to occasional free-lance supply through returning Vietnam War veterans and the like.
Where does it go? Closely related to the striking uniformity of inner-city heroin prices at retail level in the United States is the gigantic discrepancy between known levels of opium production for illegal purposes and consumption by the world's addict population.
Fairly reliable statistical data are available for both. Within great margins of fluctuation depending on weather, enforcement, and other conditions, available supply exceeds demand by roughly a factor often. Approximately tons annually are produced and transported out of the world's largest opium-growing area, the Golden Triangle.
In practice less than half this amount is refined into heroin; the remainder is sold in the form of either opium or morphine base, largely for smoking purposes, and largely to an addict population in the orient itself.
However, by all estimates of the American addict population, approximately three tons per year of refined heroin are more than sufficient to meet annual consumption "requirements. DEA and other official sources affirm the cited production figures through direct monitoring of opium shipments and other sophisticated intelligence methods.
Consumption and sales are obviously limited by the possible size and financial resources of the addict population in the advanced sector. To use a rough example: In short, most of it is never sold, because production capacity is enormous relative to the market's absorption capacity. What happens to the rest of the heroin? Only a small portion of the total comes into the hands of law enforcement agencies, whose capture of a few pounds of heroin is a matter for celebration.
We still must account for tens of tons. The law enforcement records indicate that the drug is warehoused in huge stockpiles against contingencies and to prevent oversupply on the market. For example, during the height of the crackdown on Southeast Asia heroin traffic in immediately after U. At the time, 21 refineries were known to be operational in the area. Meo tribesmen in the Burmese or Yunnan Province mountains foothills do not plant what they feel like, but what they are told to plant.
This facet of the production cycle is well known to law enforcement investigators. If for some reason the market research is off, chaos will ensue, as it did in , when the Golden Triangle yielded a bumper harvest, after wholesalers told poppy-growing peasants to increase their acreage by 50 to percent. The wholesalers counted on the continuing exponential expansion of heroin consumption among American soldiers in Vietnam.
Nixon pulled the rug out from under them by pulling the troops out, leaving the world heroin market in an unprecedented state of oversupply. Reckless price-cutting and competition for sales outlets in this case might have provoked serious consequences for Dope, Incorporated were it not for "government regulatory intervention.
The opium was burned in a public ceremony attended by giggling Thai officials, thus restoring "equilibrium" to the market. In any case, the Thais were only repeating the action of the Imperial Chinese in , who purchased and burned more than 3, tons of opium to the great relief of oversupplied British traders, who sent special fleets to India to bring additional opium back to get the Imperial Government's attractive price.
Once world illegal opiates traffic comes under scrutiny as an integrated, centralized "monopoly," the discrepancy between the huge oversupply and relatively restricted demand presents no further difficulties. We are looking at an "industry" based on the same principles as the world diamond cartel controlled by De Beers, or the so-called "club" among leading pharmaceuticals manufacturers.
Diamond production capacity is so large relative to the absorption capacity of the world market that De Beers' Central Selling Organization, running 85 percent of world diamond wholesale trade, limits availability in order to obtain essentially the price it wants. Pharmaceuticals are, ironically, an even better example.
Since the knowledge to manufacture most of the commonly used prescription drugs is widespread among the pharmaceuticals companies, and since the costs of production are insignificant compared to the retail prices of most drugs, elaborate legal arrangements are necessary to prevent a price collapse.
Notoriously, the profits of the pharmaceuticals industry owe not to chemists but to patent lawyers. How big an industry? A couple of comparisons are in order. It is even more boggling when the retail value in the United States and other OECD countries of non-opiate illegal drugs comes into the picture. Beyond such examples, no accurate data exist. It does not include the proceeds of other drug-related illegal activities, including gambling, theft, prostitution, smuggling, arms traffic, and so forth.
It is almost meaningless to assign a total figure to the size of the world's illegal economy. It can only be stated confidently that the illegal economy, whose cornerstone is illegal drug traffic, exceeds the gross national product of most of the OECD countries!
That is an extremely conservative projection of the hard data available. To put the matter another way: World trade volume is a mere trillion dollars. Where does the money go? The question that emerges now is,. Again, only one possible answer can be admitted: More than that, this chunk of international banking enjoys the sovereign protection of more than a few governments. These conclusions are obvious.
In the following sections of this report, the Anglo-Dutch banking operations that control illegal drug and related trade are documented in detail. Below, we will demonstrate through several chains of evidence that this is the only possible banking network that could handle the requisite volume of illegal traffic. The Anglo-Dutch oligarchy's banking operations have the following qualifications: They have run the drug trade for a century and a half.
They dominate those banking centers closed off to law enforcement agencies. Almost all such "offshore," unregulated banking centers are under the direct political control of the British and Dutch monarchies and their allies.
They dominate all banking at the heart of the narcotics traffic; the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, created in to finance the drug trade, is exemplary.
They control world trade in gold and diamonds, a necessary aspect of "hard commodity" exchange for drugs. The general reader, by contrast, only needs to know a few facts in order to realize that something is wrong. Hundreds of billions of dollars, including at least a hundred billion in the offshore centers and further hundreds of billions elsewhere, circle the world through teletyped bank transfers.
No banking reserves are kept on any of this, as insurance against sudden withdrawals; in the United States, by contrast, commercial banks must hold 15 percent of their checking account balances and 4 percent of their savings balances on reserve. The "offshore" banks just assume that if they are short of cash, they can borrow what they need on the enormous "interbank" market. This mind-boggling financial procedure involves banks lending funds to each other in order to obtain fractional advantages in interest rates.
Perhaps 40 percent of the total market is interbank money. The "offshore" banking markets are precisely what the name implies: Federal bank regulators will only stare at their shoes when asked what goes on in these places. In the Cayman Islands , one of the largest offshore centers, the only government is the official "Tax Haven Commission.
Repeatedly, they have identified the offshore centers as the place to look for dirty money. They have not been able to, because virtually all the centers are under British political protection see below.
American banks do a land-office business in the offshore centers, precisely because no reserves are needed, and every dollar of deposits can be lent out for interest. Even clean banking operations have moved offshore because present federal banking regulations virtually force them to.
The big movement offshore began under the Kennedy Administration, when Anglophile Treasury officials C. Douglas Dillon and Robert V. Roosa railroaded legislation through Congress that taxed loans made to foreigners by American banks. The tax did not apply to loans made offshore, so that is where the bankers went.
By the time the Dillon-Roosa legislation was lifted in , the banks were "hooked" through the difference in reserve requirements. In a recent interview in Euromoney magazine, Citibank's chairman Walter Wriston denounced the Dillon-Roosa taxes as a "pure gift to London. The figures break down as follows: The above figures do not show the actual size of the offshore banking centers, because they include only the assets of branches domiciled in the largest ten industrial countries.
They do not include such entities as the three large banks in Thailand's capital, Bangkok, which figure prominently in financing Golden Triangle opium production. Nor do they include thousands of smaller, "offshore" finance companies based only in the offshore centers themselves.
Expatriate Chinese banks in the Far East, which have long been known to be a key point of contact with illegal drugs and other contraband traffic in the Far East, also do not show up on these tables; there is no available data on these institutions at all. Furthermore, the above table does include a great deal of legitimate banking business which American and other industrial-country banks bring to the "offshore" market for tax and other reasons.
Another set of figures is provided in the Bank of England's quarterly report , although it contains the same unwanted additions and deletions, and is thus relevant; it shows the large volume of interchange between London, which in major respects functions as the world's biggest "offshore" center, with the previously mentioned outposts for illegal money.
Unfortunately the available figures mix in both British banks' dealings and those of American and other banks which have offices in London. The British pre-eminence makes the world picture of offshore banking and dirty money more comprehensible.
If the world offshore banking sector appears to run as a single operation under British monarchy control, that is because the same group of people who run it also run the opium traffic whose proceeds this banking sector was created to handle.
One index of British muscle is the following breakdown of the offshore banking centers, comparing the number of banks in each center directly attached to the Royal Institute of International Affairs governing bodies with the number of other banks in each center: London and Switzerland are not normally considered offshore banking centers, although in practice both centers function that way.
Their most important activity is conduiting funds for international terrorism. Most recently, European authorities traced the funding of the Aldo Moro assassination through Swiss channels back to Israel. London is the largest center for Eurodollar banking under the encouragement of the Bank of England, which permits the foreign branches of U. The Bank of England can do as much or as little as it wants in the way of regulation, under British law. For self-evident reasons, even the best-protected institutions of the British oligarchy prefer to launder their dirty money through Caribbean, Hong Kong, and similar branch operations, rather than in London itself.
Because the British suppliers of narcotics have ironclad control over offshore bank operations, American organized crime marketers of those narcotics have had a field day in the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas. American drug enforcement authorities know that most of the dirty money arising from the U.
There has been, unfortunately, little public heat against the British officials who control the operations. This level of control reaches the flagrant. For example, the chief of all banking regulation and licensing in the Cayman Islands, a close third behind Hong Kong and Macao in the big league of dirty money, is one Mr. Dent , with the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank.
Benbow got his present job at the recommendation of the British-influenced International Monetary Fund, according to a source at the IMF's Exchange and Stabilization division. Direct British "hands-on" management of the Caribbean offshore operation dates back to the s, when E. Virtually the only one of the offshore centers not under official British control is Panama; not coincidentally, Panama is the only offshore center where American banks strongly outnumber British banks.
That is not to say that Panama is clean; on the contrary, most of the funds derived from the Colombian trade in marijuana and cocaine are laundered through Panama, through the three large Colombian banks resident there.
However, American banks have a measure of maneuvering room that they do not have in the Cayman Islands or the Bahamas, under the snooping eyes of the British authorities. West German banking sources believe that the British banks behind Drugs, Incorporated want to move in on Panama and close the gap. Marine Midland is the transactions agent for the central bank of Panama.
All of the national accounts clear through Marine Midland. Should the Hong Kong and Shanghai succeed in acquiring the American bank, it would exercise a decisive margin of control over the Panama offshore market, and bring British control over the offshore centers full circle.
British control over the world dirty money operation is no secret, and the British-Canadian-Caribbean connection to organized crime in the United States is so thoroughly documented that no doubt need remain. However, it is the Far East that acts as a chokepoint for dirty money, in such volume that it dwarfs legitimate economic activity in the region, and in the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong in particular. London has seduced and jostled American banking operations into the Caribbean to such an extent that there is a vast amount of legitimate money mixed in with the proceeds of the drug traffic.
However, Hong Kong was set up by the British, literally from bare rock, as a center for the drug trade, and remains to this day purely British, and purely a center for the drug trade. In the Far Eastern example we can "prove" that Britain and its Peking allies run every phase of international drug traffic.
The laundering cycle The Drug Enforcement Administration and other law enforcement organizations know how the cycle of dirty money in the United States works. After the cash is laundered through these nominally legitimate channels, it is transferred to offshore banking operations or their equivalent. Then, according to Drug Enforcement Administration officials, the funds take several trips around the world over the telex machines of offshore banks, passing through at least a half dozen, and usually more, different bank accounts and corporate fronts, from the Caymans to Liechtenstein, from Liechtenstein to the Bahamas, from the Bahamas to a "nonresident corporation" in Canada, from Canada to Panama, and so forth.
At various points in the process, the funds will purchase diamonds, gold, paintings, or similar portable valuables. At a further point, the valuables will be translated back into cash, eliminating even the trace of a bank transfer.
For this reason, the use of undercover agents, in place even at fairly high levels in known branches of narcotics trafficking, has a poor record of detecting either the source or ultimate destination of narcotics-related funds.
Once laundered, the proceeds of the drug traffic and related illegal activities divide into three channels. First, between 10 and 20 percent of the total is recycled back to the opium wholesalers in the Far East and the marijuana wholesalers in the Caribbean and Latin America, constituting the net profits of the wholesale drug trade. A second part is invested in expansion of offshore operations, particularly gambling casinos, resorts, and other profitable operations that are also useful for further laundering of dirty money.
The remainder is reinvested in the United States in "legitimate" racing, gambling, hotels, restaurants, and other business appropriate for cash-laundering and further expansion of the domestic drug traffic.
As noted, Hong Kong and related Far East operations are the chokepoint in the entire traffic, where dirty money is a way of life.
We will focus on the Far East, the point of origin of world heroin traffic, and work backwards through the maze of Dope, Incorporated fronts and subsidiaries, to arrive at the British-controlled syndicates in the United States. From Opium to Dirty Money The starting point for the drug cash flow is the cash size of the opium and heroin traffic in the Far East itself, before the drugs obtain the stupendous price markups available in Western markets.
The price pyramid is known to be the following: Raw opium, the gum of syrup extracted from opium poppies, is produced in the Golden Triangle, the conjunction of the southern border of the People's Republic of China Yunnan province , and the northern borders of Thailand, Burma, and Laos. The mountainous terrain, largely above 4, feet in elevation, provides ideal growing conditions.
Mountain peoples, rather than ethnic Chinese including those in Yunnan province , grow the opium and collect the gum. By the time the merchant, typically a Yunnanese, has brought the gum by mule train to the triborder area, e. Existing data permit the estimate that a division of an average ton crop into tons for heroin refining and tons for opium shipment for Far Eastern smoking purposes is usual.
Any distinction among these cities is meaningless. The business structure of the area is under the control of two principal groups that straddle the Far East. The second, their satellites, is the overseas Chinese networks, under the joint control of London and Peking. But this wholesale figure is only a small portion of the cash flow of the Far East drug traffic.
This is roughly four times what the opium was worth at the first wholesale round. The majority of production is retailed locally at large markups although the markups are much smaller than in the case of heroin retailed in Western countries.
That by itself is 15 percent of the estimated assets of foreign banks in Hong Kong, or 10 percent of estimated bank assets of foreign banks in Singapore, or precisely Thailand's balance of trade deficit! Measured against the size of economic activity in the regions, there is no possible way to chalk these numbers up in the "Errors and Omissions" column.
Even these numbers do not sufficiently reflect the scale of the cash flow derived from crude opium sales alone. It must be added that most of this cash flow is seasonal; virtually all wholesaling must be completed during the two months following the March poppy harvest. Correspondingly, the visible flow of drug-related funds is several times as large during those two months. Finally, the wholesale and local retail cash figures presented above exclude what is possibly the largest component of Far Eastern narcotics money: Between him and the street corner, the same pound of heroin will undergo three markups of 1, percent.
At one time Courtland had a sizeable Chinatown. Discovery Bay , a community the first new home here was built in of waterfront homes in the South Delta on Hwy 4. It bears the Byron mailing address. Boating is a way of life here and nearly 4, families call it home. It has a private country club with an hole championship golf course. Its grand plans to eclipse Sacramento never materialized, but Freeport remained an important agricultural center anyway.
This is a comfortable little town, even though residential and business construction from neighboring Sacramento have marched down the river to its outskirts. Access to Freeport by boat is easy via Freeport Marina. There are restaurants, bait shops and other facilities in town. Just downstream of town is the Freeport Bridge, a bascule-type drawbridge of considerable importance to most everyone living in the area.
French Camp , a growing community south of Stockton, which got its beginning when French trappers came here in It was named after Hudson Bay Company trapper Michael la Frambois, who came here in and in many subsequent years.
The town predates neighboring Stockton. Although the slough at one time supported some traffic comprised of small paddlewheel riverboats, it no longer is considered navigable.
Hood , on the east bank of the Sacramento below Freeport, was founded in by William Hood, a construction engineer for the railroad. Today it is a sleepy town, with a large produce packing shed fronting on the river, but with no access for boaters. Isleton , a comfortable river town on the east side of Sacramento River, founded in by Josiah Pool.
It was a regular stop for the paddlewheelers, and at one time there were at least five canneries in the area. Isleton is a fun little town with at least a half-dozen restaurants. Guest docking and a launching ramp fee are located in town. Knightsen , is a sleepy one-time farming community along Hwy 4 in the West Delta, originally established as a stop on the railroad, which even today runs through town. There are some U-pick farms in the area, and Knightsen at one time was known for the walnuts grown in the area.
Lathrop , south of Stockton, is growing in leaps and bounds, even though it does not have a great deal of identity as a town. Its borders extend to the San Joaquin River and beyond. And it is within Lathrop that the ambitious Gold Rush City project is proposed.
Locke , on the east bank of the Sacramento River a mile upstream from Walnut Grove, was built by and for the Chinese in The town is on the National Register of Historic Places, and the county has done much to help preserve it. It has two restaurants, a store, gift shops, a gambling museum, and Boathouse Marina on the river side.
At one time, there was a large cannery upstream of Locke. Lodi , this gentle town of 52, sits on the banks of the Mokelumne River at Hwy 12 and Hwy Along with its neighbor, Woodbridge, it has become well known for its vineyards and quality wine. Lodi was founded as a railroad stop in as Mokelumne Station, but three years later received its present name.
In earlier times, several paddlewheeler steamboats made voyages to Woodbridge, but navigation this far up the river never became reliable. Today, a dam at Woodbridge prevents downstream craft from reaching Lodi. But the dam does form Lodi Lake, which includes a park and is a popular recreation area. There is launching, and boaters water ski and run PWCs on this upper portion of the river. Oakley , is a once-sleepy West Delta town founded in as a railroad stop.
It has been rapidly growing in recent years. One other marina nearer to town is next to Big Break, farmland that was inundated in and was never recovered.
Many black bass tournaments depart from this area. Oakley just recently gained city status. It was settled later that year and became known as New York Landing. When coal was discovered in nearby hills, its name was changed to Black Diamond, and then again to Pittsburg in honor of a steel mill located there.
Pittsburg has always had a strong Italian heritage. Most of the early Italians there were commercial fishermen, and that became a mainstay of the community, which later supported several canneries. Commercial fishing was over by the s, but Pittsburg survived quite nicely anyway. There are two marinas located downstream in what until recently was known as West Pittsburg but now is Bay Point.
The city has a huge marina in town, replete with everything needed by the boater. Founded by Colonel N. Davis in , Rio Vista originally was located upstream near Cache Slough, but soon was wiped out by floods and moved to its present, more amiable location. No levees sit in front of Rio Vista to spoil the view, and its backdrop is formed by the Montezuma Hills. Its most noted landmark is the beautiful twin towers of the Rio Vista Bridge.
This friendly town has a small city guest dock and a downtown launching ramp, although most owners of larger craft prefer to dock just downstream at full-service Delta Marina Yacht Harbor, an easy stroll to town.
Rio Vista has shops, restaurants and most anything else you might need, including the nearby Baumann Airport. Fishing is king around here, and this area offers perhaps the best fishing in the Delta. Rio Vista has good bait shops. The town also is noted for its excellent Windsurfing.
Ryde , population 40, was established in when W. Kessner purchased 40 acres on Grand Island and on it built a small hotel. A settlement grew around it and one of the former land owners was from the Isle of Wight and suggested it be name after a town named Ryde on the Isle of Wight.
Although at one time there was a cannery nearby, the room Ryde Hotel hosts most of the action here. It includes a nice guest dock and a small 9-hole golf course. Walnut Grove, Locke and Isleton also are handy to Ryde. Sacramento , where it all started, traces its humble beginnings to when Augustus Sutter sailed up the Sacramento River in two small ships and established New Helvetia. The embarcadero that he established at the site of what is now Sacramento, just grew like mushrooms once gold was discovered in and the rest of the world began to find out about it and head for Sacramento in anything that would float.
Sacramento had residents in April of and over 2, by October of that year. Old Sacramento today does not look too much different than it did during those Gold Rush years. The biggest annual event here is the Sacramento Jazz Jubilee, a four-day musical extravaganza over the Memorial Day holiday.
Stockton was established in by Captain Charles Weber. It grew quickly after the discovery of gold, as boats heavy with Argonauts arrived and headed for the Southern Mines. Soon, it also was established as a strong agricultural center for the farming that took place in the nearby reclaimed islands.
Stockton also had a lively shipbuilding industry, some of which thrived on through the Korean conflict. Recreational boating is strong in Stockton today.
Two of the finest paddlewheeler steamboats ever built, the Delta King and Delta Queen, were constructed in Stockton. More marinas and yacht clubs are located in the Stockton sphere of influence than in any other part of the Delta. It still is home for the houseboat rental fleets, an activity that got its start back in the s when George Ladd established a fleet of pontoon houseboats at his Buckley Cove marina. Business really got going for Ladd when Sunset Magazine did a favorable write-up on Delta houseboat in the late s.
And the long-established River Route mail delivery emanates from the Stockton post office. Suisun City , is located at the end of Suisun Slough, where a wonderful new marina occupies the sweeping harbor area. In earlier times, Suisun City was an island, linked to neighboring Fairfield by a causeway.
Sailing scows and other commercial traffic called on the port. Suisun means West Wind, originating with the Patwin Indians. There are plenty of activities in the marina area, including Dixieland Jazz concerts, bathtub races, opening day boat parades, and Christmas lighted boat parades. It virtually was a ghost town in the when Tower Park Marina was established in the old Western Pacific waterside produce packing sheds that line Little Potato Slough. From here, Delta produce was shipped by rail to all over the nation.
Two ferries were located at this site, one to Staten Island and the other to Bouldin Island, the latter one being replaced by a swing bridge in Marine repair, groceries, marine canvas, new and used boat sales, dining, and much more can be found these days in the Terminous area. Tower Park stages its annual DeltaFest, usually the second weekend in May.
The Terminous post office was closed years ago and this area now uses a Lodi address. Tracy , in the South Delta, stretching out to include some waterside properties, first established as a railroading town.
Tracy might not consider itself a Delta town, but its sphere of influence extends out to many of the Delta waterways, including Grantline Canal, home of Tracy Oasis Marina. Walnut Grove , on the east bank of the Sacramento River, the only town downstream of Redding situated on both sides of the river.
There is definitely a small-town flavor to this wonderful little village. Although agriculture seems to rule here, the Walnut Grove-Locke area is one of the favorite stops for visiting boaters. This back door includes The Meadows anchorage area, as well as Lost Slough and the Mokelumne River, all areas favored by boaters. When they are open, the channel provides a handy shortcut between the two areas for boats with a height of up to about nine feet. West Sacramento , formerly Broderick across the Sacramento River from Sacramento, home of the Port of Sacramento, has been almost like a part of Sacramento from the beginning.
By wheeled vehicles, you can flit back and forth across the river via either the handsome Tower Bridge or the venerable double-decker I-Street Bridge. There are plans to build a large marina project two, as a matter of fact there on the west side of the river, but not much has happened. Indians had lived in the historic California Delta for centuries when the Spaniards first found it in The region was heavy from spring rains and from their view atop Mount Diablo they thought it to be a huge inland lake.
French trappers arrived in , and mountain men like Jedidiah Smith trekked its high ground. But it was the discovery of gold on the American River in Coloma in that hastened the reclamation and settlement of the Delta. The California Gold Rush was on. History was in the making. It is one of the only possibly the only operating sternwheel steamboats on the Delta. History records that some men disillusioned by their unsuccessful quest for gold, saw gold of another sort if the rich swamplands of the California Delta could be protected from inundation.
The first crude levees were built by hand in the early s, but most of them held for no more than a season or two. In the s, the clamshell dredge was developed. Over , acres on some 55 man-made islands had been brought to the plow. Steamboat service between Sacramento, Stockton and San Francisco was convenient and comfortable in that time in history. At one time or another, over paddlewheeler steamboats sloshed their way through Delta waters.
During the wet season, it was possible to steam up the San Joaquin River to as far as the outskirts of Fresno, and up the Sacramento River to above Red Bluff. The Transcontinental Railroad made history when it was completed in the actual final link was the completion of a railroad drawbridge at Mossdale , freeing a work force of some 12, persons. Many of them were Chinese who settled in the California Delta to help with levee construction, farming, cannery work, and other chores.
Their contribution was great and they left an indelible mark on the history of the California Delta. Chinatowns became an established part of most every river town and city in this area. By the s, the automobile had arrived. There was a flurry of ferry construction in one swoop, San Joaquin County installed 18 cable drawn ferries and bridge-building. Although there had long been ferries in the Delta to take folks on foot or horseback, and horse-drawn wagons and buggies across the waterways, the ferries now also had to be constructed to handle automobiles and trucks.
The horse-drawn buggies and wagons were fast being relegated to history. The Lauritzen brothers established what had to be the most exciting of the ferries when they established ferry service from Antioch to Sherman Island. After only a few years, their ferry was replaced by the first Antioch Bridge, a giant lift bridge that in its up position could clear the Stockton bound freighters. The railroads, which had proven to be tough competition for the steamboats, by the s were finding formidable competition from the refrigerated trucks that could haul Delta produce more conveniently and for less money.
By the s, steamboat activity in the Delta was about finished — two of the last of the historic breed, the handsome Stockton built Delta King and Delta Queen launched in sternwheelers were taken out of regular service just prior to WWII. The Delta King serves as an elegant restaurant and inn at Old Sacramento, while the Delta Queen sloshes along quite ably in the Mississippi River system. Fishing and boating had always been a favored pastime for Deltaphiles.
The regular waterway dredging for levee maintenance, also deepened the waterways, making it possible for deep-draft cruisers to explore the off-beat waterways of the Delta sloughs, rivers and channels.
The Stockton Deepwater Channel was completed in , and since then freighters from around the world have been calling on the Port of Stockton. The dug Sacramento Ship Channel was completed in , firmly establishing the Port of Sacramento located in West Sacramento in the shipping business. Channels for both of these ports have been further deepened so the ports could handle larger ships.
Museums, large and small are found here and there. Five ferries still exist and may be ridden on free. Drawbridges 50 to years old still function. Beautiful old homes, carefully restored, can be viewed, especially along the Sacramento River.
The late Christian Lauritzen, aboard the beloved family tugboat Margaret Lauritzen. He was born on Woods Island in and died in at age Lauritzen Yacht Harbor, located in Antioch on the south side of the San Joaquin River downstream of the Antioch Bridge, just celebrated its 40th birthday in But the Lauritzen family has deep roots in boating in the Delta and the marina is owned and operated by third-generation family members, brother and sister Margaret Lauritzen-Lane and Christian Chris Lauritzen III.
In earlier times the Lauritzen Transportation Co. They helped tame the Delta. When the new-fangled automobile became prolific, Lauritzens helped make the Delta accessible by operating a car ferry between Antioch and Sherman Island.
The ferry service thrived until in when it was replaced by the first Antioch Bridge, a lift-type drawbridge. Lauritzens went on to operate tugboats, barges, cranes and other heavy equipment on the river. Part of the Lauritzen Transportation Co. At one time the fleet numbered about eight boats.
Chris has long been a volunteer reserve member of the Contra Costa Sheriff Water Patrol, and a strong advocate of boating safety. The marina Website, www. The marina has open and covered berthing, dry-boat storage, pumpout, launching, fuel regular and premium , and other facilities. They open early in the morning here to accommodate anglers going out after the big ones. Fifteen Mitchells ran out of fuel and crashed; one diverted to a safe landing at Vladivostok in the Soviet Union.
The movie made me think about the Delta. He enjoyed duck hunting and other activities here. Second, I remember sitting at the bar at the old Delta Tavern in the hamlet of Holt when farmer Sonny Welser announced he was purchasing a B bomber and having it flown in and parked next to the clubhouse he maintained on his Roberts Island ranch for the Holt Marching and Chowder Society.
They had great feeds with only the finest foods. They had some high-stakes poker games I am told. They drank a lot of whiskey. Sonny liked to declare that they were always available to march in parades in Holt.
Holt never had any parades. I figured the impending bomber purchase was just bar talk. But Sonny built a landing strip out on his ranch, and I expect that it was longer than the deck of an aircraft carrier.
One day at the Delta Tavern bar, Sonny announced the B bomber was arriving the next day. Sure enough, it did. I took photos of it. I would judge this to have happened about , give or take a year or two. Surely the club members must have enjoyed it.
Although I had been invited, I never did make it to one of the club feeds. Paramount planned to film for six weeks but ended up taking three months to shoot the bomber scenes. The movie opens with a mass takeoff of all eighteen of the Bs. There was always a rumor that Sonny also had a German Panzer tank hidden out on the ranch. Rumor had it that the tank was still fitted with its cannon, and this made it illegal and this is why Sonny had it hidden out.
I have talked to people who claim they saw the tank. Sonny would neither confirm nor deny his ownership of such a tank. With Sonny, you could believe this to be a true story. The Delta waterway labyrinth includes some 1, miles of navigable waterways.
There are few Deltaphiles who can claim to have traveled every one of those miles by boat. Today, thousands of boat owners who live in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond keep boats in the California Delta, and spend as much time as possible on board them — just messing around.
If any of our members can help you make your messing around a bit more meaningful, please give them a jingle. For nearly years paddlewheeler steamboats churned their way through the myriad Delta waters, leaving a heritage that lives on through the present time.
It was a colorful era, marked by steamboating characters who were bigger than life. They were adventuresome men who stood at the helm, often taking their vessels into uncharted waters; spirited men who were quick to take the challenge of a race with another steamboat, often to the peril of their passengers who were egging them on.
Yes, there were boiler explosions, often at the loss of considerable life. I estimate that some paddlewheeler steamboats churned Delta waters during that era. The only one of them to live on to operate today is the Delta Queen, busy with excursion service in the Mississippi River system.