Traveler Ranked Highest rated hotels on TripAdvisor, based on traveler reviews. Denison Ross and Eileen Power. Epic floods in left Tripoli underwater for several days, but two years later an unprecedented drought caused the loss of thousands of head of cattle. However, the walled Medina retains much of its serene old-world ambiance. You can help by adding to it.
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Reviewed May 27, excellent hotel. Reviewed July 15, Typical Business Hotel. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo , Egypt first the Fatimids , and later the Mamluks , and Kairouan in Ifriqiya the Arab Fihrids , Muhallabids and Aghlabid dynasties. For some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom.
John , who had lately been expelled by the Ottoman Turks from their stronghold on the island of Rhodes. Finding themselves in very hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the city's walls and other defenses. Though built on top of a number of older buildings possibly including a Roman public bath , much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle or "Assaraya al-Hamra", i. Having previously combated piracy from their base on Rhodes, the reason that the Knights were given charge of the city was to prevent it from relapsing into the nest of Barbary pirates [ citation needed ] it had been prior to the Spanish occupation.
The disruption the pirates caused to the Christian shipping lanes in the Mediterranean had been one of the main incentives for the Spanish conquest of the city. The knights kept the city with some trouble until , when they were compelled to surrender to the Ottomans, led by Muslim Turk Turgut Reis. His body was taken from Malta , where he had fallen during the Ottoman siege of the island, to a tomb in the mosque he had established close to his palace in Tripoli.
The palace has since disappeared supposedly it was situated between the so-called "Ottoman prison" and the arch of Marcus Aurelius , but the mosque, along with his tomb, still stands, close to the Bab Al-Bahr gate.
After the capture by the Ottoman Turks, Tripoli once again became a base of operation for Barbary pirates. One of several Western attempts to dislodge them again was a Royal Navy attack under John Narborough in , of which a vivid eye-witness account has survived.
Effective Ottoman rule during this period — was often hampered by the local Janissary corps. Intended to function as enforcers of local administration, the captain of the Janissaries and his cronies were often the de facto rulers. In , Ahmed Karamanli , a Janissary officer of Turkish origin, killed the Ottoman governor, the " Pasha ", and established himself as ruler of the Tripolitania region. By , he had asserted a sort of semi-independence from the Ottoman Sultan, heralding in the Karamanli dynasty.
The Pashas of Tripoli were expected to pay a regular tributary tax to the Sultan, but were in all other aspects rulers of an independent kingdom. This order of things continued under the rule of his descendants, accompanied by the brazen piracy and blackmailing until , when the Ottoman Empire took advantage of an internal struggle and re-established its authority.
The Ottoman province vilayet of Tripoli including the dependent sanjak of Cyrenaica lay along the southern shore of the Mediterranean between Tunisia in the west and Egypt in the east. Besides the city itself, the area included Cyrenaica the Barca plateau , the chain of oases in the Aujila depression, Fezzan and the oases of Ghadames and Ghat , separated by sandy and stony wastelands. In the early part of the 19th century, the regency at Tripoli, owing to its piratical practices, was twice involved in war with the United States.
The demand was refused by third President Thomas Jefferson , and a naval force was sent from the United States to blockade Tripoli. The First Barbary War dragged on for four years. In , Tripolitan fighters captured the U. Navy heavy frigate Philadelphia and took its commander, Captain William Bainbridge , and the entire crew as prisoners.
This was after the Philadelphia was run aground when the captain tried to navigate too close to the port of Tripoli. After several hours aground and Tripolitan gun boats firing upon the Philadelphia , though none ever struck the Philadelphia , Captain Bainbridge made the decision to surrender. The Philadelphia was later turned against the Americans and anchored in Tripoli Harbor as a gun battery while her officers and crew were held prisoners in Tripoli.
The following year, U. Navy Lieutenant Stephen Decatur led a successful daring nighttime raid to retake and burn the warship rather than see it remain in enemy hands. Decatur's men set fire to the Philadelphia and escaped. A notable incident in the war was the expedition undertaken by diplomatic Consul William Eaton with the objective of replacing the pasha with an elder brother living in exile, who had promised to accede to all the wishes of the United States.
Eaton, at the head of a mixed force of U. Soon afterward, on 3 June , peace was concluded. In , in consequence of further outrages and due to the humiliation of the earlier defeat, Captains Bainbridge and Stephen Decatur , at the head of an American squadron, again visited Tripoli and forced the pasha to comply with the demands of the United States.
See Second Barbary War. In , the Ottomans took advantage of a local civil war to reassert their direct authority. After that date, Tripoli was under the direct control of the Sublime Porte. Rebellions in and were unsuccessful. After the French occupation of Tunisia , the Ottomans increased their garrison in Tripoli considerably. Italy had long claimed that Tripoli fell within its zone of influence and that Italy had the right to preserve order within the state. On 1 October , a naval battle was fought at Prevesa , Greece, and three Ottoman vessels were destroyed.
By the Treaty of Lausanne , Italian sovereignty was acknowledged by the Ottomans, although the caliph was permitted to exercise religious authority. Italy officially granted autonomy after the war, but gradually occupied the region.
Originally administered as part of a single colony, Tripoli and its surrounding province were a separate colony from 26 June to 3 December , when all Italian possessions in North Africa were merged into one colony.
By , Tripoli  had , inhabitants, including 39, Italians. Tripoli underwent a huge architectural and urbanistic improvement under Italian rule: In the coast of the province was built in — a section of the Litoranea Balbia , a road that went from Tripoli and Tunisia's frontier to the border of Egypt.
The car tag for the Italian province of Tripoli was "TL". Furthermore, the Italians — in order to promote Tripoli's economy — founded in the Tripoli International Fair , which is considered [ by whom? The Italians created the Tripoli Grand Prix , an international motor racing event first held in on a racing circuit outside Tripoli it lasted until But the war with the defeat of the Italian Army stopped the construction the next year.
Tripoli was controlled by Italy until when the provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were captured by Allied forces. The city fell to troops of the British Eighth Army on 23 January Tripoli was then governed by the British until independence in Under the terms of the peace treaty with the Allies , Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.
On 15 April , U. President Ronald Reagan ordered major bombing raids, dubbed Operation El Dorado Canyon , against Tripoli and Benghazi , killing 45 Libyan military and government personnel as well as 15 civilians. Among the alleged fatalities of the 15 April retaliatory attack by the United States was Gaddafi's adopted daughter, Hannah. United Nations sanctions against Libya were lifted in , which increased traffic through the Port of Tripoli and had a positive impact on the city's economy.
In February and March , Tripoli witnessed intense anti-government protests and violent government responses resulting in hundreds killed and wounded. The city's Green Square was the scene of some of the protests.
The anti-Gaddafi protests were eventually crushed, and Tripoli was the site of pro-Gaddafi rallies. The city defenses loyal to Gaddafi included the military headquarters at Bab al-Aziziyah where Gaddafi's main residence was located and the Mitiga International Airport. During the subsequent battle of Zawiya , loyalist forces besieged the city and eventually recaptured it by 10 March. As the military intervention in Libya commenced on 19 March to enforce a U. It was the second time that Tripoli was bombed since the U.
In July and August, Libyan online revolutionary communities posted tweets and updates on attacks by rebel fighters on pro-government vehicles and checkpoints. Several months after the initial uprising, rebel forces in the Nafusa Mountains advanced towards the coast, retaking Zawiya and reaching Tripoli on 21 August.
On 21 August, the symbolic Green Square, immediately renamed Martyrs' Square by the rebels, was taken under rebel control and pro-Gaddafi posters were torn down and burned. During a radio address on 1 September, Gaddafi declared that the capital of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya had been moved from Tripoli to Sirte , after rebels had taken control of Tripoli.
In August and September Islamist armed groups extended their control of central Tripoli. The Council of Deputies parliament set up operations on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk. Tripoli and its surrounding suburbs all lie within the Tripoli sha'biyah district. In accordance with Libya's former Jamahiriya political system, Tripoli comprises Local People's Congresses where, in theory, the city's population discuss different matters and elect their own people's committee; at present [ when?