Klondike Gold Rush

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. They continue along dashed lines. Email Exclusives Special offers and discounts. Saloons were typically open 24 hours a day, with whiskey the standard drink. Should the prospector leave the claim for more than three days without good reason, another miner could make a claim on the land.

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Saloons were typically open 24 hours a day, with whiskey the standard drink. Swiftwater Bill Gates , a gambler and ladies man who rarely went anywhere without wearing silk and diamonds, was one of them. To impress a woman who liked eggs—then an expensive luxury—he was alleged to have bought all the eggs in Dawson, had them boiled and fed them to dogs.

Unlike its American equivalents, Dawson City was a law-abiding town. Saloons and other establishments closed promptly at midnight on Saturday, and anyone caught working on Sunday was liable to be fined or set to chopping firewood for the NWMP.

In contrast to the NWMP, the early civil authorities were criticized by the prospectors for being inept and potentially corrupt. In the remote Klondike, there was great demand for news and contact with the world outside. During the first months of the stampede in , it was said that no news was too old to be read. In the lack of newspapers, some prospectors would read can labels until they knew them by heart.

In June, , a prospector bought an edition of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer at an auction and charged spectators a dollar each to have it read aloud in one of Dawson's halls. Mail service was chaotic during the stampede. This resulted in huge queues, with claimants lining up outside the office for up to three days. In eight percent of those living in the Klondike territory were women, and in towns like Dawson this rose to 12 percent.

Once in the Klondike, very few women—less than one percent—actually worked as miners. They had extensive domestic duties, including thawing ice and snow for water, breaking up frozen food, chopping wood and collecting wild foods.

Wealthier women with capital might invest in mines and other businesses. She brought a consignment of cloth and hot water bottles with her when she arrived in the Klondike in early and with the proceeds of those sales she first built a roadhouse at Grand Forks and later a grand hotel in Dawson.

A relatively small number of women worked in the entertainment and sex industries. The sex industry in the Klondike was concentrated on Klondike City and in a backstreet area of Dawson. The degree of involvement between Native women and the stampeders varied. Many Tlingit women worked as packers for the prospectors, for example, carrying supplies and equipment, sometimes also transporting their babies as well.

By telegraphy stretched from Skagway , Alaska to Dawson City, Yukon, allowing instant international contact. Another factor in the decline was the change in Dawson City, which had developed throughout , metamorphosing from a ramshackle, if wealthy, boom town into a more sedate, conservative municipality. The final trigger, however, was the discovery of gold elsewhere in Canada and Alaska, prompting a new stampede, this time away from the Klondike.

In August , gold had been found at Atlin Lake at the head of the Yukon River, generating a flurry of interest, but during the winter of —99 much larger quantities were found at Nome at the mouth of the Yukon. Only a handful of the , people who left for the Klondike during the gold rush became rich.

Antoine Stander, who discovered gold on Eldorado Creek, abused alcohol, dissipated his fortune and ended working in a ship's kitchen to pay his way.

George Carmack left his wife Kate—who had found it difficult to adapt to their new lifestyle—remarried and lived in relative prosperity; Skookum Jim had a huge income from his mining royalties but refused to settle and continued to prospect until his death in ; Dawson Charlie spent lavishly and died in an alcohol-related accident. The richest of the Klondike saloon owners, businessmen and gamblers also typically lost their fortunes and died in poverty.

Kate Rockwell , "Klondike Kate", for example, became a famous dancer in Dawson and remained popular in America until her death. Dawson City was also where Alexander Pantages , her business partner and lover, started his career, going on to become one of America's greatest theatre and movie tycoons. The impact of the gold rush on the Native peoples of the region was considerable. Dawson City declined after the gold rush.

When journalist Laura Berton future mother of Pierre Berton moved to Dawson in it was still thriving, but away from Front Street, the town had become increasingly deserted, jammed, as she put it, "with the refuse of the gold rush: During the gold rush, transport improvements meant that heavier mining equipment could be brought in and larger, more modern mines established in the Klondike, revolutionising the gold industry. Many buildings in the center of the town reflect the style of the era.

The port of Skagway also shrank after the rush, but remains a well-preserved period town, centered on the tourist industry and sight-seeing trips from visiting cruise ships. The events of the Klondike gold rush rapidly became embedded in North American culture, being captured in poems, stories, photographs and promotional campaigns long after the end of the stampede. Several novels, books and poems were generated as a consequence of the Klondike gold rush.

The writer Jack London incorporated scenes from the gold rush into his novels set in the Klondike, including The Call of the Wild , a novel about a sled dog. Service , did not join the rush himself, although he made his home in Dawson City in Service created well-known poems about the gold rush, among them Songs of a Sourdough , one of the bestselling books of poetry in the first decade of the 20th century, along with his novel, The Trail of '98 , which was written by hand on wallpaper in one of Dawson's log cabins.

Some terminology from the stampede made its way into North American English like " Cheechakos ", referring to newly arrived miners, and " Sourdoughs ", experienced miners. Each red frame represents the map to the nearest right. Dalton trail is shown to the left on the midsection of the map. Takou and Stikine route. Position of map on map of northern America. Stikine route branch from Wrangell meets with branch from Ashcroft at Glenora. They continue along dashed lines.

Takou route meets Stikine route at Teslin Lake. McKenzie River most of the way. Map of goldfields with Dawson City and Klondike River at top. Production of gold in Yukon around the Klondike Gold Rush.

Increase after discovery at Klondike. The list was a suggestion of equipment and supplies sufficient to support a prospector for one year, generated by the Northern Pacific Railroad company in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other gold rushes in Alaska, see gold rush. Prospectors ascending the Chilkoot Pass , Mining methods of the Klondike Gold Rush. Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush. Maps, charts, tables and lists. This has generated improved statistics for the nationality and gender of those involved in the gold rush. For this reason the academic literature and contemporary accounts do not usually differentiate between gold rush prices quoted in US or Canadian dollars.

Equivalent modern prices have been given in US dollars, to two significant digits. The equivalent prices of modern goods and services have been calculated using the Consumer Price Index 1: Larger sums, for example gold shipments, and all capital investment projects, including land prices, have been calculated using the relative share of GDP index 1: The census data suggests that 63 percent of Dawson City inhabitants at the time were American citizens, with 32 percent Canadian or British.

As Charlene Porsild has described, however, the census data for the period is inconsistent in how it asked questions about citizenship and place of birth. Porsild argues that the level of participation from those born in the US, as opposed to recent immigrants or temporary residents, may have been as low as 43 percent, with Canadian and British born members of the gold rush in the majority.

Winter travel meant deep snow and treacherous ice. However, the mud that formed each spring and fall would be frozen and snow would cover the sharp, jagged rocks that the traveller would have to avoid in the summer. Wood led a party that tried to reach Dawson by this route. They too had to spend the winter along the frozen Yukon River, eating the supplies that Wood had hoped to sell at a profit in Dawson.

Now he was forced to sell at his purchase price. Their hearts turned to stone—those which did not break—and they became beasts, the men on the Dead Horse Trail. Once the whole ton of supplies had been moved, the next stage could begin. A prospector carrying the equipment alone would need thirty round journeys for each stage. One was the A. Goddard , a small river boat transported in pieces to Lake Bennett and assembled here. It made one trip to Dawson.

Local traders accepted commercial dust at the pure dust rate, but made up for this by under weighing. Anderson disputed the purchase, but the contract was enforced by the NWMP.

Luckily for him, it proved to be incredibly rich. The equipment remained unused during the conflagration. The journalist Tappan Adney described it as resembling a "mill-pond".

However, they did not arrive until long after the risk of starvation was over and in the meanwhile many of the animals themselves had died from hunger. Some were imported from outside the region; native dogs, however, were considered superior. They had been bred with wolves, but were reportedly kind and easily handled. Up to fifty prisoners worked on cutting wood at any one time; this was not easy work and formed an unpleasant deterrent for misdemeanours.

They were known as chechaquos , and they always wilted at the application of the name. They made their bread with baking-powder. This was the invidious distinction between them and the Sour-doughs, who, forsooth, made their bread from sour-dough because they had no baking-powder. Or is Klondike Gold an Orphan? Canadian Science Writers' Association.

Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved 5 May Retrieved October 28, Retrieved 16 April The New York Times. Retrieved August 26, Retrieved November 14, Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved August 30, Selling Seattle, Competition Among Cities".

Retrieved 10 March University of British Columbia Press. News, Media and Aboriginal People. The Journal of Economic History. Women of the Klondike. Berton, Laura Beatrice I Married the Klondike. The Last Great Gold Rush — A Manual For Goldseekers. Ireland and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History.

Burke, Mike; Hart, Craig J. In Mao, Jingwen; Bierlein, Frank. Meeting the Global Challenge. Burnham, Frederick Russell Everett, Mary Nixon, ed. Scouting on Two Continents.

Doubleday, Page and Company. Canadian Women's History in the Twentieth Century. McGill Queen's University Press. Oral and Written Interpretations of the Yukon's Past. University of Washington Press. A Social History of Gold Rushes, — University of Toronto Press. Pictorial Histories Publishing Co. The Lives of Jack London.

Harvey, Robert Gourlay Carving the Western Path: The Comedy of Charlie Chaplin: Tales of the Klondyke. The Call of the Wild and White Fang. Macdonald, Ian; O'Keefe, Betty The Klondike's "Dear Little Nugget". Incredible Tales of the Klondike Gold Rush. Morrison, William Robert Morse, Kathryn Taylor The Nature of Gold: Women, Men, and Community in the Klondike.

Ross, David; May, Robin The Royal Canadian Mounted Police — Railroads and the Legacy of the National Parks. Go back and forth via email as needed. Once you're happy, we'll begin production Reply again to your order confirmation email indicating your design approval and attach the final version of the PDF mock-up you approve. I promptly received exactly what I ordered. Oh yeah, the chips are awesome! Read testimonials from hundreds of other satisfied customers!

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