Income Tax

Episode 36 -- Segment 3 - Time for a true baller, and nemesis to all Sucker Mcs: Philosophy is based on four components: A social psychology of group processes for decision-making. The concert also will include the return of a beloved and successful classic Tchaikovsky's Fourth Symphony. Celebrating 75 years, these concerts have introduced more than , 5th grade students to live classical music in a fun, energetic and interactive environment.

Course Outline

Editor, Great Plains Quarterly Sr. Naval Intelligence, and studying international business communication along the U. Braithwaite earned his B. Their experiences have been as diverse as any other immigrant to this part of the United States, although they faced many more challenges than other cultural groups. The story of African Americans on the Great Plains is one of making of new communities, being soldiers and creating businesses, battling prejudice and discrimination, struggling for civil rights, and contributing to the cultural growth of America.

Using new communication technology to improve education Students today need to be able to effectively interact with diverse cultures and how to be able to in engage in discussions of global issues.

How can we expand the global awareness and knowledge of human diversity for our students? New communication technology can play an important role in education by connecting students, professors, and classrooms with their counterparts around the world.

The Global Classroom is a model that uses live, real-time video conferencing to allow students in Nebraska to talk face-to-face with people in Turkey, Russia, Pakistan, Yemen, Spain, and Costa Rica, and has been doing so for the eight years. Culture and Higher Education on the Plains There are 33 tribal colleges serving more than 30, students, and representing more than tribes from across the U.

What is unique about tribal college education? What contributions do they make to their tribes and to America? Dan Claes received his Ph. As a postdoc for S. Stony Brook he worked at Fermi National Lab on the discovery of the top quark.

Dan joined the University of Nebraska in , and now searches for new, theoretically predicted particles at CERN - where the announcement of the Higgs boson was made.

He is a Principal Investigator on the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project CROP , an ambitious outreach effort involving Nebraska high school science teachers and students in a large-scale study of cosmic ray air showers. Dan also serves as chair of the department. Comic Book Physics Prof.

Dan Claes explores topics inspired by iconic comic book characters, their superpowers, and significant events in their history in a series of independent presentations. What can we deduce about his native planet, Krypton? How fair can that fight be? What the Heck is a Higgs Boson?! Are We Alone in the Universe? Enrico Fermi enjoyed posing interesting questions which were often difficult to impossible to answer directly, but amenable to rough approximations and inspired guesses.

Don Costello has been in the field of computing for 50 years and has been at the University of Nebraska—Lincoln for 35 of those years. In recent years, Costello has been assisting both local and international firms and web start-ups using his expertise in Software Engineering as they specify, contract and build todays large and mission critical systems.

In addition to assisting management in the specification and contracting aspects of working with these systems, he has been successful in measuring and improving the performance of these systems using statistical methods, modeling, simulation, and reasonable human relations strategies. He is far from just theoretic. Costello operates his international consulting business in Lincoln as well as teaching undergraduate and graduate courses for Computer Science and Engineering at UNL.

He lectures and gives workshops all over the world on Software Engineering and on how he sees the future of this field. My great grandfather came there after the Civil War. In the land was almost all fields and not much different from the way the Dutch first found it. By , New York was the most famous bursting metropolis in the world.

My years there saw my family come out of the great depression and valiantly participate in World War II and from its aftermath begin their migration to the hinterland.

To me it was a wildly exciting and daily more wondrous place to be raised and I will share that wonder, so that we can compare my Bronx with what you saw on TV or in your visit to watch the Yanks play.

The talk will cover stickball, slug and salugie; fights between rival cultural ghettos, all attempting to get ahead. Information Technology — Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow The world of information technology seems to never slow down. Individuals, organizations, and companies are bombarded with new technology and the pressure to upgrade their IT environment almost every day.

Do we go along with Microsoft and upgrade to the latest version of Windows? Do we upgrade our website with more animation?

It presented a vision of the future that was certainly science fiction to me. Working for IBM a number of years ago, I did see numerical controlled tools and saw how robotic automation impacted the automobile production line. This progress saw autonomous driverless cars compete in a mile race with unscripted events that required the car to decide for itself how to get through the problem on its own artificial intelligence.

The results are amazing driverless cars, competing in a speed race, without a driver, for a million dollar prize. Advances here will change the face of cars and the driving experience for everyone.

Recent advances in the use of robotic devices at the University of Nebraska Medical Center finds miniature robots providing significant improvements in robotic-assisted surgery. Investment versus Gambling in a Digital Economy The digital society finds the digital world filled with databases, analytic techniques and new digital investment plans that are far from standard.

Some of these plans have the same names as when we dealt in a less information rich economy but are in fact very different.

Many of the plans are offered by entities that are driven by models,created by employees, called quants. Not all these plans are driven by greed; some of them are in fact legitimate, while others are not. The gambling community has long been a source of illegitimate nefarious activities. The leaders of this group are not unaware of the possibilities of worldwide offering, of online gambling games to every home and business, along with possibly legitimate, but very profitable lending schemes.

The talk is aimed at awakening the public understanding of the dangers involved and the need for watchfulness. Do you get frustrated with your home or office computer? Are they always changing something and telling you how good it is going to be? Are you really able to do what you did BC Before Computer , only better?

Are you able to enjoy your work? Even if you are not a computer expert are you able to feel successful? I will relate what has happened in home and office computing, attempt to help you manage your own goals and the corporate goals of your IT department and help you and your employer recognize and reward your talents.

There is a way to enjoy your work. We are not just profit making machines - we are human beings, the most important element of a successful business. The Computer in Medical Care: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow The computer plays an ever important and essential role in almost every part of our lives. Nowhere is that essential positioning more obvious than in viewing the progress it made in the history of medical care over the past 75 years.

This talk begins where the computer almost always made its first entrance: In making its entrance there, it allowed medical insurance to follow. From each of the leaves of a computer, looking into medical care, a new branch of computer based medicine grew.

Artificial Intelligence and new sensors change the way medical data is gathered and medical decisions are made. Not everything about computing in medical and health care is perfect and Don will advise you on how to be careful. Most point to the fact that Automation, Computing and Robotics ACR are systematically eliminating many traditional jobs.

The trajectory first became obvious when Ford introduced the production line and specialized the work ensuring quality automobiles and throughput. With the new ACR environment this process is accelerating and creating new challenges. This new environment appears to be eliminating various job classifications. Many senior employees are let go and must depend on a retirement strategy that may not have been anticipated. Some are forced into unemployment situations that they never expected.

Most of these jobs will never be replaced. Students, professional and parents are asking what educational program will provide continuing employment? This talk will present some strategies that can improve the probability of continuous employment. On the other hand, we will also address strategies that will help control the accumulation of student debt. His passion for weather has remained throughout his entire life. His academic background includes training in Physical Geography and Climate Science.

He creates and maintains the content at the UNL website: Professor Dewey has received seven teaching awards from the University of Nebraska—Lincoln, eight research fellowships, and eleven funded research grants. His primary areas of research include severe storms climatology, snow and ice studies, short-term climatic variability, and severe weather preparedness. This annual event brings in over3, people of all ages to learn more about severe weather in our region. Professor Dewey also runs a national summer weather camp at UNL for high school students to encourage bright young students to pursue a career in science.

He has chosen four of his favorite topics for you to consider. Professor Dewey, was chosen to produce the recent feature article for the Nebraska issue. He will also talk about historical and recent droughts, floods, blizzards and tornado events.

Come learn what makes weather both interesting and unique in Nebraska. Historic Nebraska Storms Nebraska has seen some pretty amazing storms over the years.

This presentation will take a look at some of the epic Winter snow and ice storms that have occurred in Nebraska and the Great Plains.

He will also look at some of the historic and famous Spring and Summer severe weather events including tornadoes, hail, and flooding that have impacted Nebraska. This presentation will illustrate everything you ever wanted to know about tornadoes on the Great Plains with special attention given to the tornadoes that have been observed in Nebraska.

Are there areas of the state more likely to have tornadoes? Are there tornado characteristics that are unique to our area? Is Nebraska home to any U. Find out the answers to these questions and more in his presentation. The day the Storms Chased the Storm Chaser On May 9, , while sitting in his office and working on his book about his career of chasing and photographing storms on the plains, Professor Ken Dewey saw the storms come to him. Looking out the window of his house he watched in disbelief as a tornado formed and began to move into his neighborhood.

As the tornado lifted back into the sky just a few blocks from his house, his sigh of relief quickly turned into fear as an hour of hail descended on his house.

Hail the size of softballs began smashing into the homes and cars in his neighborhood. His presentation will summarize what it was like to experience this extreme storm first hand and he will also show photos of the incredible damage resulting from this spring storm in Lincoln, NE. Dick was eventually seduced by psychology, receiving a Ph. Building Resistance to Stress and Aging Chronic stress leads to mental and emotional deficits by damaging our brains. Unfortunately, aging does too.

But we can prevent and even overcome that damage by regularly embracing activities that toughen us. Toughening activities include both mental challenges and physical exercise, staying engaged socially, meditating, and this is the best part even affectionate activities. As we regularly engage in those toughening activities, some of our genes become activated and other genes become deactivated—sometimes temporarily, but sometimes for a lifetime.

Those genetic modifications enhance some important brain structures, and those neural developments lead, in turn, to some great positive benefits including emotional stability, enhanced energy, efficient cognitive functions, and even self control. Although based on modern scientific research, the lecture is designed to be understandable for non-scientists.

The Science of Sexual Orientation Most of us are romantically and sexually attracted to people of the other gender. What accounts for those differences between us? We gain insight from modern scientific approaches to that question—approaches ranging from studies of genes and endocrine hormones to modern neuroscience. We explore how genes and fetal exposure to hormones affect the development of the brains and bodies of all mammals, including we humans. And we learn how those brain differences affect our sexual orientation.

This lecture is about science, not religious or moral issues, but even though the scientific facts tell us a great deal about how our sexual orientation forms, some mysteries remain.

Although based on modern scientific research, this presentation is readily understandable for a lay audience. After graduate work, Diffendal taught geology, geography, and biology courses at St.

Dominic College in St. He was then appointed to the faculty of Doane College in Crete where he taught geology courses for 10 years. Diffendal joined the faculty of UNL in as a member of the Conservation and Survey Division where he worked as research geologist and held the rank of professor until his retirement in Diffendal has produced many articles, guidebooks, maps, and other works on the geology of Nebraska and several articles on the geomorphic development of Yellow Mountain in China.

He has given talks and has led trips for thousands of Nebraska children and adults as well as those from other states and countries. Among his other experiences, Diffendal was an exchange professor and did research during the ten times he has been to China since He was science division chair and associate dean at Doane.

Fewer know that this natural region extends north into Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada, and south into Mexico. The geographic boundaries of the region are much debated and are often not clear cut.

The Great Plains developed geologically over billions of years by amalgamation of tectonic plates and deposition of sediments by wind and water over much older rocks. From to 66 million years ago the region was inundated periodically by seas and marine deposits with fossils were laid down over the Great Plains and much of what now we call central North America.

The Rocky Mountains were pushed up by tectonic plates colliding starting about 66 million years ago. Sediments eroded from the mountains were carried out onto the developing plains area and deposited by rivers. Volcanoes in the Rockies and westward through the Great Basin and Sierra-Cascades erupted from time to time and produced volcanic ash clouds that drifted eastward and rained down on parts of the Great Plains. These processes continue today.

Diffendal will tell you about the Great Plains, how it came to look the way it does today, and will describe and discuss several wonderful sites with geological, archeological and ecological importance that are located in the Great Plains. Big, Wild and Cold Nunavut is a recently created part of Canada that was separated from the older Northwest Territories. This temperament is characterized by upbeat, highly energetic, and overconfidence.

People with these traits do not seek help for mental problems and, therefore, are rarely seen by mental health professionals. They often, however, will seek help for marital problems, job instability, or problems with impulse control. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, more than two million Americans are affected by some form of schizophrenia.

This array of illnesses can severely impair a person's ability to manage emotions, interact with others, and think clearly. Symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, disordered thinking, and social withdrawal. Although there are several treatments available today, the majority of people suffering from these maladies will suffer chronically or episodically throughout their lives. Even with treatment, one of every ten people with schizophrenia eventually commits suicide.

There seem to be genetic and epigenetic contributors to schizophrenia. The heritability of schizophrenia is about 70 percent. Several studies suggest that there is an increased risk of schizophrenia in people with older fathers. The risk of schizophrenia is increased for both males and female with fathers 55 years or older. The seasonal peak in schizophrenic births increases the further north a person resides.

There is evidence that lack of UV light and low vitamin D may contribute to schizophrenia. In , scientists at Columbia University asserted that up to one fifth of all schizophrenia cases are caused by prenatal infections. Interestingly, Cox 2 inhibitors, which are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs, are an effective treatment for schizophrenia. Patrick McCann, at the University of Oklahoma, has developed a diagnostic breath test that uses lasers to measure the amount of carbon disulphide in breath of children.

Carbon disulphide is known to be at higher levels of in the breath of people with schizophrenia — even in infants. This allows him to make diagnoses decades before symptoms occur. Family members of schizophrenics but without the disorders are at higher risk for other problems.

For example, idiosyncratic use of language a trait similar to the thought disorder observed in schizophrenia occurs in 37 percent of clinically unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia, a rate almost six times higher than the presence of schizophrenia in the same families.

Other researchers have noted that family members of a person diagnosed with schizophrenia have a higher incidence of seizure disorders. When the rates for thought disorder, schizophrenia, and related clinical conditions are combined, the proportion of potential gene-carrying relatives is close to 50 percent, consistent with a dominant gene, and much higher than the 6.

Family members also have difficulty following a slow-moving target with one's eyes, syntax errors, or idiosyncratic use of language. Physically, they often have subtle anomalies in the midline of the face, and have difficulty filtering out noises and other irrelevant stimuli, a condition known as sensory gating. Although methamphetamine does not cause schizophrenia, the greater familial incidence for schizophrenia, the more likely an amphetamine user in that family would develop psychosis and the longer that psychosis is likely to last.

Prenatal influenza virus infection has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Mental symptoms of Wolfram Syndrome.

Physical symptoms of Wolfram Syndrome. Wolfram Syndrome was first described in as a familial disorder usually presenting with Type 1 juvenile-onset diabetes and vision loss.

The syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder meaning that it only occurs in individuals who have received one copy of the gene from each parent. It is caused by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 4.

The frequency of carrying the recessive genetic trait in the US population is approximately one percent. The syndrome is also characterized by the presence of neurogenic bladder frequent urination , hearing deficits, and other neurological problems. A majority of individuals who have two mutant Wolfram Syndrome genes have these distinctive symptoms. Despite the array of symptoms, most people will have the disorder for several years before an accurate diagnosis is made.

Wolfram Syndrome may also present with psychological symptoms, such as depression, violent and assaultive behavior, chronic anxiety, panic attacks, and hallucinations.

Most people with the disorder die prematurely with progressive, widespread atrophic changes throughout the brain. Unfortunately, 60 percent of those with the syndrome die by age While it takes two aberrant genes to manifest the full-blown syndrome, those who carry a single mutation, a condition called Wolfram Syndrome Heterozygotes , have no distinguishing physical characteristics but constitute approximately one percent of the population.

Family members who carry a single mutation in the Wolfram Syndrome gene are 26 times more likely to require hospitalization for depression and suicide attempts than people who do not have the gene.

Researchers Ronnie and Michael Swift at New York Medical College estimate that even though only one percent of the general population carries the gene — about 25 percent of the patients hospitalized for psychiatric difficulties may be carrying the gene. Mental symptoms of hemochromatosis.

Physical symptoms of hemochromatosis. Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes iron accumulation in the body. People of Western European descent — with ancestors from Ireland, Wales, Scotland, or Great Britain — have a percent probability of carrying a gene for hemochromatosis. According to the Centers for Disease Control, Type 1 hemochromatosis is the most common genetic disease in the United States.

Like Wolfram Syndrome, hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive condition. The person must inherit two mutated genes called HFE one from each parent. This type of the disorder is deemed responsible for sexual dysfunction in percent of men. They exhibit loss of libido and potency, and have high iron and low plasma levels of testosterone.

However, in some cases, inheritance of only one mutated gene may eventually lead to significant iron accumulation. Although the majority of these people will never know that they carry the gene, some will begin to feel aches and pains and changes in energy and mood. This condition is also thought to contribute to what is called treatment resistant mental disorders. A study by researchers David Feifel and Corinna Young Casey at the University of California in San Diego showed that 80 percent of people with treatment resistant bipolar disorder carried one gene and lacked a family history for this disorder.

They estimated that one percent of psychiatric patients were likely candidates for iron overload. Common symptoms of hemochromatosis are fatigue, aches and pains, disorientation, confusion, and memory problems. In these cases, the diagnosis is often missed for several years, as symptoms are mistaken for depression or dementia.

Signs of the illness usually appear between ages 40 to 60, but some people show symptoms as early as Patients suffering from idiopathic hemochromatosis exhibit low plasma levels of testosterone with loss of libido and potency.

It was Eugene Weinberg that was the first to look at the effect of iron in our bodies. He found that the presence of high iron could cause chronic inflammation.

Hemochromatosis causes inflammation in the liver, joints, heart, lungs, pancreas, and the brain, especially in the basal ganglia. This part of the brain is rich in dopamine, and in these cases, iron may cause damage to the dopamine system contributing to many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The gene is thought to accelerate the onset of Alzheimer's disease by five years.

In the past, people with hemochromatosis usually did not survive past their forties or fifties. But as a result of better recognition and treatment, most people with the disorder now have normal life spans. This has resulted in another problem, iron overload in the central nervous system.

Bloodletting has been a treatment for this illness for centuries and is still the treatment of choice. Another treatment is chelation therapy. We now know that lowering iron is not only useful for hemochromatosis, but may actually be beneficial to the immune system.

Infections need iron to survive. The human body contains many natural chelators. Mental symptoms of Wilson's disease. Wilson's Disease affects approximately 1 in 30, people worldwide, making it a rare disorder.

However, it is estimated that at least half of the people with Wilson's Disease are never diagnosed, and therefore will suffer, and sometimes die, from the disease. Wilson's is a genetic disorder that causes the body to retain copper.

The liver of a person who has the disease cannot release copper into bile as it should. Over time, the copper reaches a toxic level and injures liver tissue. Eventually, this damage will result in high levels of copper in the bloodstream, which leads to damage in the kidneys, brain, and eyes. Untreated, high copper will eventually cause liver failure and brain damage. Wilson's Disease occurs equally in men and women. Although some cases of Wilson's Disease can occur due to spontaneous genetic mutation, most cases are transmitted from generation-to-generation.

The responsible gene is called ATP7B and is located on chromosome In order to inherit the disease, both parents must carry the gene. Siblings of Wilson's Disease patients have a one-in-four chance of having the disease.

Since both of a siblings' parents are carriers, one-fourth of the siblings' children have the disease, one-half are carriers, and one-fourth are disease-free and carry no Wilson's Disease gene.

A child of a Wilson's Disease patient has a percent chance of getting one abnormal gene. The patient's spouse has a one-in-one-hundred chance of carrying the abnormal Wilson's Disease gene, and half the time, he or she will pass it on.

For this reason, all siblings and children of Wilson's Disease patients should be tested for Wilson's Disease. Other relatives who have had symptoms or laboratory tests that indicate liver or neurological disease also should also be tested. Because Wilson's Disease is often mistaken for other maladies such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or psychiatric problems, medical specialists estimate that only about one thousand cases per year are ever diagnosed.

In the early stages of the disease, especially when psychological symptoms occur, the diagnosis is often missed. The delay between symptoms and diagnosis ranged from one to five years. Depression sometimes leading to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts is common.

Deteriorating academic and work performance is present in almost all patients. Interestingly, many Wilson's Disease patients exhibit increased sexual preoccupation and reduced sexual inhibition. It is also linked with pedophilia. A barrier to the diagnosis of Wilson's Disease is that most patients have no family history of it. Because both parents must carry the gene to manifest the disorder, people with only one abnormal gene usually have no symptoms, or may have mild, but medically insignificant, abnormalities of copper metabolism, and do not become ill.

People with Wilson's Disease may not have any outward signs, symptoms, or evidence of illness. However, people with mild or non-apparent Wilson's Disease will become seriously ill and eventually die if they are not treated. Diagnoses are usually made by blood and liver tests.

Chelation therapy is commonly used as treatment. Doctors will also recommend avoiding foods high in copper such as liver, shellfish, mushrooms, nuts, chocolate, dried fruit, dried peas, beans and lentils, avocados, and bran.

Scientists believe the XXY condition is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities in humans. About one of every five hundred males has an extra X chromosome, but many have no symptoms. It is likely that about 60 percent of the cases are undiagnosed.

Symptoms depend on how many XXY cells a man has, how much testosterone is in his body, and his age when the condition is diagnosed. Children with this condition will often exhibit attention deficit disorder. The syndrome is normally diagnosed during puberty.

At this age, those with Klinefelter's Syndrome often have less facial and body hair and may be less muscular than other boys. They are often shy and have trouble fitting in with peers. Mature men with this syndrome have several distinguishing characteristics, such as tall stature, long arms and legs, lanky build, feminized physique, little chest hair, female-patterned pubic hair, testicular atrophy, hypogonadism, osteoporosis, breast development, and low levels of testosterone.

The low testosterone accounts for the lack of development of male secondary sex characteristics. They may be infertile and are more likely to have certain health problems, such as autoimmune disorders, breast cancer, vein diseases, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Behaviorally, they exhibit reduced aggression and lack of exploratory behavior. They also have trouble using language to express their thoughts and needs, but experience increased levels of emotional arousal.

Problems with reading, trouble processing what they hear, emotional instability, and anorexia nervosa may occur.

The main treatment is for this syndrome is testosterone. It has long been known that certain families show tendencies for hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. What is not usually known is that members of such families are also prone to other conditions including insulin-dependent diabetes, pernicious anemia lack of vitamin B12 , premature gray hair, vitiligo white spots on the skin , arthritis, and allergic conditions, including asthma, hives, and hay fever. There is also an increased tendency for members of these families to have various types of perceptual learning problems and dyslexia.

Researcher Lawrence Wood suspects this relationship is missed because women in the family tend to get thyroid problems, while predominantly the men in the family have learning problems, but are seldom seen by family physicians. See more on thyroid later in this document. DNA is found in every cell of the body. Another type is found in a part of the cell called mitochondria. DNA in the mitochondria, therefore, identifies maternal risk factors of medical and mental illnesses. Mitochondria are specialized organelles found in every cell of your body, except red blood cells.

There are approximately 1, mitochondria in each human cell. They are vital to the production of cellular energy. In fact mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90 percent of the energy needed by the body to sustain health. Inside the mitochondria, ingested sugar is broken down in the body by a process known as glycolosis , which changes glucose to a compound called adenosine triphosphate ATP , which is then converted in to pyruvate.

The pyruvate next delivered to tiny mitochondria. When this system fails, less and less energy is generated within the cell. Cell malfunction, and even cell death, may follow. Diseases of the mitochondria appear to cause the most damage to cells of the brain. Mitochondria damage contributes to developmental delay, mental retardation, autism, dementia, seizures, atypical cerebral palsy, atypical migraines, stroke and stroke-like events, and other psychiatric disturbances.

In early , researchers Kato Tadafumi and Kato Nobumasa at the University in Tokyo proposed a mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis for bipolar disorder. Postmortem tissue samples extracted from the hippocampi of the brains of nine individuals with bipolar disorder showed significant mitochondrial depletion. A search for mutant mitochondrial DNA in the tissue samples revealed two suspect genes.

A Cleveland Clinic survey of 38 outpatients with mitochondrial diseases found 70 percent met the criteria for major mental illness, including 54 percent with lifetime depression, 17 percent with lifetime bipolar, 11 percent with lifetime panic, and 11 percent with current generalized anxiety. On average, the mitochondrial disease was diagnosed about four years after the onset of psychiatric symptoms, and 14 years after a physician was seen for diagnoses.

Genetic testing has helped significantly in identifying mitochondrial risk factors. Out of our 30, genes, only two percent of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA codes for proteins. These genes were considered to be the byproduct of millions of years of evolution — genes were still inherited but were no longer used. Recently, however, scientists have discovered that some of this junk DNA actually switches on RNA that interacts with other genes.

The field of research of these phenomena is epigenetics. Epigenetics is the science of turning genes on- and-off with nutrients and other chemicals, resulting in changes of expression of those genes. The process of suppressing and enhancing genes is called methylation, a chemical process that, among other things, aids in the transcription of DNA to RNA and is believed to defend the genome against parasitic genetic elements called transposons. Transposons are spans of DNA that — through a process called transposition — can actually move to different positions within the genome of a cell.

Transposition was first observed by researcher Barbara McClintock; this discovery earned her a Nobel Prize in More fascinating is the finding that these mutations may be inherited by children. Environmental toxins have been shown to alter the activity of genes through at least four generations after exposure.

For example, women who smoke while pregnant double the risk of asthma in their grandchildren. For this reason, no two brains are alike, including those of identical twins. It is thought that about 40 percent of our genes can be modified epigenetically. Although identical twins share the same DNA, their epigenetic material can be different. Moreover, the older the twins become, the more discrepancies will occur in their DNA.

Fifty-year-old twins have four times as many differentially expressed genes than three-year-old twins. Even more interesting is the discovery that genes are regulated by maternal care. Thus far, at least nine hundred genes can be altered by maternal care. For example, the presence of a variation in the monoamine oxidase A gene MAO-A combined with maltreatment predicts antisocial behavior.

In mid, researcher Moshe Szyf at McGill University reported that commonly-used pharmaceutical drugs can cause such persistent epigenetic changes. Szyf and his co-author Antonei Csoka posit that drug-induced diseases, such as tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced lupus, are epigenetic in nature. More about Lupus below. They also propose that epigenetic changes from pharmaceuticals may be involved in heart disease, obesity, diabetes, infertility and sexual dysfunctions, as well as neurological and cognitive disorders.

Smoking can cause changes in gene function. As stated earlier, there is compelling evidence that prenatal smoking increases the incidence and severity of ADHD. The risk of a severe type of ADHD greatly increases in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy and who also have variants of one or two genes associated with ADHD — one on chromosome 11 and the second on chromosome 5.

Interestingly, even children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy who didn't fit all of the criteria for ADHD had more symptoms of the disorder. This was true if they had been exposed to cigarette use in utero or had genetic variations related to risk. The early human embryo consists of three cell layers: The mesoderm forms muscle and bone. The endoderm creates the cells lining the digestive and respiratory system.

The ectoderm forms the skin, hair, fingernails, olfactory system, and neural cells, including the brain. This is intriguing, since people with hair, skin, nail, and olfactory problems seem to be more prone to mental disorders, which will be discussed later. The brain begins from a miniscule layer of tissue called the neural plate.

As the fetus continues to grow, there is neuronal migration up the plate to the head. The average human baby generates an astonishing 50, neurons per second during gestation.

In the developed brain, there are two essential types of cells — neurons and glia. The word glia is derived from the Greek word for glue. Although we usually think of neuron problems when we look at mental disorders, 90 percent of brain cells are glial cells; only 10 percent are neurons.

Unlike many neurons, glial cells are able to divide and reproduce rapidly. Glial cells surround neurons and hold them in place, supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons, insulate one neuron from another, and remove dead neurons. University of California at Berkeley professor Marian Diamond has been one of the pioneers of the theory that an enriched environment increases brain function.

It had long been thought that glial cells were protectors of neurons. This suggests that that the environment in the early years sculpts the brain. Astrocytes are a type of glial cell that surround the synapses between neurons. It appears that a dearth of these cells plays a part in mental illness.

Postmortem studies on human brains of individuals with major depression or bipolar disorder have detected significantly lower than normal levels of glial cells. A reduction in the number of glial cells in the prefrontal cortex has been observed in people who are clinically depressed. There are alterations of glial cells in schizophrenia. The function of astrocytes is to supply neurons with energy, meaning a low astrocyte level would cause lower activity in the associated neurons.

Sodium valproate is a sodium salt of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and a mood stabilizer. Valproic acid protects dopaminergic neurons in midbrain neuron and glia cultures by stimulating the release of neurotrophic factors from astrocytes.

Researcher Serge Przedborski, the co-director of the Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, has found that astrocytes with a mutated form of a gene, superoxide dismutase called SOD1 , kill neurons, which eventually is seen as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Research presented at the Second World Congress on the Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases suggests that osteoporosis may actually begin in the womb.

If a baby is undernourished, she will be small at birth, will be small at the first year, will often have low bone mass at 25, and will have a high probability of bone trauma at 70 and a high probability of hip fractures at Low bone mass is also linked to schizophrenia, depression, and other mental problems. Scientists now believe that many disorders — including mental disorders — have their origins in the early stages of life. For example, low birth weight is correlated with depression after puberty.

Low birth weight was not the only cause but increased the risk effects of other adversities, such as child abuse. The volume of the human brain increases more during the first year of life than at any other time; therefore, early physical health plays a part in brain development. Researcher JWB Douglas found that children who had at least one admission to the hospital for more than a week's duration, or who had repeated hospital admissions before the age of five years, had significantly increased risk of behavior disturbance and poor reading in adolescence.

The children were more troublesome in school and at home, and more likely to be delinquent in school. As adults, they were prone to show unstable job patterns than those who were not hospitalized in their first five years. Although this type of historical data would be most helpful in making a diagnosis, it is rarely sought in an intake interview. Besides early illness, early nutrition also has lasting consequences.

During the early years, nutrition is allocated in ways that give the child the best chance in early life, sometimes at the expense of later years. In the era of the Baby Boomers, formula was considered by many doctors as superior to breast milk. Most baby boomers were bottle fed babies. In one study, premature babies fed only standard-formula milk had noticeably lower IQs at school age than breast-fed infants, and they were particularly bad at mathematics.

A small area of their left parietal lobe was less active than expected. The developmental phenomenon called programming allows a fetus to adapt to sub-optimal conditions, such as malnutrition. In some cases, this can have an effect on brain development which could be the precursor to a mental disorder later in life.

There are sensitive periods for growth; if not exposed to environment at the proper time, brain development is altered. For example, language is acquired in the first few years of life.

Neural Pruning is the deletion of cells. Over one-third of the neurons in the cerebral cortex are eliminated in the first three years. At six months, babies can differentiate human and non-human faces, such as monkey faces, but by nine months, they lose this ability to discriminate monkey faces. Since the monkey face discrimination is not needed, it is deleted. Some researchers believe that pruning is also responsible for dementia. The theory is that, late in life, the pruning system is turned on and cells begin to be deleted.

Cortical migration and neuron proliferation are complete at five and twelve months of age, respectively, while myelination is only 50 percent complete at eighteen months after birth. Seventy-five percent of human brain growth occurs during the first two years; the remaining 25 percent is not completed until adulthood.

Brain size in the newborn is proportionately greater than in adults. The newborn brain weighs one-third of an adult brain, while the newborn weighs only four percent as much as the average adult. The blood-brain barrier, which restricts the penetration of toxins to the brain, is not fully developed in humans until about one year of age.

It is not known when the barrier becomes fully functional. Connections in the visual system are not fully achieved until three or four years of age. Brain development differs between boys and girls, with girls generally reaching peak gray matter thickness one to two years earlier than boys. Breastfeeding significantly decreases the risk of cognitive and behavioral problems. In full-term infants, increasing the duration of breastfeeding more than eight months is associated with consistent and statistically significant increases in IQ assessed at ages eight and nine reading comprehension, mathematical ability, and scholastic ability assessed at ages ten to thirteen.

While I am not suggesting that you measure the head of you clients, head size does correlate with mental function. It has long been noticed that head size is correlated with intelligence. Larger head size is related to higher tests scores in global cognitive functioning and speed of information processing. These observations are not confounded by educational level, socioeconomic background, or height. People with small head size defined as less than However, large head size is also correlated with social spectrum disorders.

There is also a correlation between small head size and schizophrenia. There are other issues - political issues, gender issues - that people need to be educated about. Humans tend to identify themselves as male or female.

But, in fact, gender identity is a continuum. Researcher Simon Baron-Cohen states in his book, Prenatal Testosterone in Mind, that the default fetal brain structure is female. In a male fetus, testosterone is released at the seventh week, which changes the brain structure to that of a male.

How and when this occurs may play a part in gender behavior and identity. Several studies suggest that gay men are more likely than either lesbians or heterosexual men to have older brothers, but not older sisters.

Researchers Gualtieri and Hicks posit that this may occur because of a maternal immunization effect. A mother carrying her first son has very little exposure to the proteins he is making because of the placental barrier. Her immune system responds to these proteins, and subsequent sons will be exposed, via active transport across the placenta, to antibodies directed against male-specific proteins, which then perturb development of the younger son. This decreases birth weight and affects the events that masculinize the brain.

I have never been married, and therefore is seems clear that I should do so now. Clinical empathy is an essential requirement for effective psychotherapy. It is the way we bond with our clients and it is also the way we assess the level and depth of their suffering. Empathy is hard-wired in the brain. It is one of the fundamental traits in pair bonding. Therefore, the brain has multiple circuits for understanding the emotional state of others. Human brains are remarkably alike.

They all contain cerebral hemispheres, a corpus collosum , white matter, and other structures that mediate behavior, thought, and mood. Subtle architectural changes, however, can have a profound change in these capacities. Research suggests that the default genetic blueprint of a human brain is a right-handed female. At the seventh week of gestation, the male fetus begins to secrete testosterone, and this lateralizes the brain.

Among the changes from female to male architecture is the pruning of the corpus collosum. Savants — people who often have remarkable abilities with memory, math and music — frequently have a significantly smaller corpa collosa.

Autism is one of the most heritable mental disorders. If one identical twin has it, there is a 90 percent probability that the other will also have the disorder. If one child in a family has autism, siblings have a times greater-than-normal risk of symptoms. Relatives of children with autism spectrum disorders are at a higher risk of having mild development impairments, including language delays and impairments in social skills and social gestures, and are more likely to exhibit attention deficit disorders.

People exhibiting alexithymia have a difficult time speaking about, or even being aware, of their feelings. See the skin and hair sections below.

Feelings are often seen as bothersome or useless. People with these traits are often depicted by family and friends as cold, distant, and nonassertive. Research suggests that alexithymia often acts as a trigger for many medical and psychiatric disorders. This also contributes to marriage and family problems. Spouses and family will often complain that the person is cold, aloof, and non-caring. This state of being seems to be hardwired early on in brain development.

Researchers suggest that this deficit is in part caused by a smaller corpus collosum, the part of the brain that connects the left and right hemispheres. In the developing brain, the right hemisphere is dominant for the first three years of life. This hemisphere modulates primitive emotions, emotional perception, and nonverbal communication.

Researcher and author Alan Schore believes that attachment makes possible the emergence of affect regulation, located in the right orbital prefrontal area, but others believe the predisposition for this is hard wired. Von Economo neurons discovered by researcher Constantin von Economo thus far have only been found in humans, the great apes, humpback whales, fin whales, killer whales, sperm whales, and African and Asian elephants.

These neurons are found in the human insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex — both areas of the brain that mediate intuition, humor, trust, empathy, mood, pain, and what researchers call theory of mind. People with deficits in the corpus collosum tend to have low counts of these neurons. The mirror neurons of many children with autism spectrum disorders respond only to their own movement. From to , the California State Department of Developmental Services reported a percent increase in autistic disorders, while the state population grew only 19 percent.

The increase did include cases of high-functioning autism or Asperger's. Most humans are right-hand dominant, but there are a growing number who are not right-handed. Being right- or left-handed is partially determined by genetics. If a person inherits the gene for right-handedness, that person will be right-handed. But those who do not have the gene may be either left- or right-handed. There is no specific gene for left-handedness.

If identical twins carry the right-hand gene, both will be right-handed. But if they lack the gene, one twin may be right-handed, while the other may be left-handed. Currently, approximately 13 percent of the population is left-handed. Generally, males are three times more likely to be left-handed than females. Several studies report that gay people have a 39 percent probability of being left-handed, although there is still controversy about these findings. People who can use both hands equally well are ambidextrous.

True ambidexterity is rare. Many left-handed people have a penchant for mathematics and the sciences. Members of Mensa, the high IQ club, also have a far higher than normal incidence of allergies. Left-handedness has also long been coupled with mental disorders. There is a higher rate of depression in left-handed people. In short, beliefs and attitudes were consistent before, during, and after the trial. Some commentators have claimed that the case was an exercise in the reification of whatever people believed in the first place.

Other commentators claimed that the Simpson case represented a Rorschach test of sorts. Thus, people could make anything they liked out of it.

As both an analyst and a radio commentator during the criminal trial, I would say that the first of these two claims is much closer to the truth. Take the question of guilty or innocent. Generally, persons from higher socio-economic groups thought that O. Among blacks, 70 percent thought O. Among whites, 70 percent thought that Simpson was guilty with slightly more affirmative women than men. How did the jury compare to the public at large? On the first round it was different as one Hispanic and eight black women and one black man had voted not guilty, and the two white women had voted guilty.

So the breakdowns of the first jury reactions appear similar to those of the general public. As meaningful as some of these differences appear, such black and white distinctions were incomplete and misleading to the extent that they failed to poll the reactions of Asians, Hispanics, and other societal groupings. More importantly, these polls in black and white, unlike the more complex and sophisticated polling of the body politic or electorate, failed to breakdown these interpretations by combining age, occupation, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and so on and so forth.

In future public discussions of crime and punishment, for example, expanded data of other ethnic and racial groups in relation to their socio-economic and gender positions, would help the body politic move beyond simple black and white distinctions and closer to the more complex relations of class, race, and gender.

What was particularly interesting to observe during the O. Typically, juries are from higher socio-economic classes than criminal defendants. Ordinarily, both the behavior of the police and the credibility of expert witnesses, are beyond reproach. That is, they are generally treated with a decorum of deference and respect. In the circumstances of defendant O. In fact, unlike As for the prosecuting team, they were led by the unusual combination of a white woman and an African American man.

As for the jury, they were composed of 11 women and one man; nine African Americans, one Hispanic, and two whites; all members of the working classes. Finally, presiding over this trial was an Asian rather than an Anglo or Euro American judge. These and other differences from the normal relations of class, race, and gender that usually surround a murder trial, accounted for the differential applications of the law, or for the special privileges, that O.

For example, even before the trial began, Simpson reached an unheard of deal in the annals of American criminal justice history. He was able, through his attorneys, to successfully negotiate a deal with the prosecution that should he be convicted of the double murder, that the state would not execute him.

Generally, if such deals are reached, the accused has to, in exchange, plead guilty to some crime or another, saving the state the expenses of a costly trial and eliminating the possibility of a non-conviction.

In sum, the contradictions in the management of criminal justice between the treatment of O. The four ways of seeing difference in the social relations of class, race, and gender that I have described as characteristic of criminology and criminal justice are, of course, ideal types or social constructs themselves. As a proponent of integrative criminology and as one who has advocated for integrating the different criminologies, there are no hard and fast boundaries between the four approaches Barak As most social and behavioral scientists of crime and justice would agree, using a variety of methods to validate any phenomenon is generally better than using only one method.

Social Realities of Justice in America When we specifically examine class, race, and gender in relationship to law, order, and crime control, on the one hand, we appreciate the unique histories of these social groupings both in isolation and in combination, and on the other hand, we appreciate the way these different social attributes and cultural constructions represent interrelated axes of privilege and inequality.

As we historically demonstrate in our book, in terms of the social realities of justice in America, the experiences of diverse groups of people in society have contributed to the shaping of the types of criminals and victims that we have had.

Like Andersen and Hill Collins These patterned actions, in turn, affect [ing] individual consciousness, group interaction, and individual and group access to institutional power and privileges. For example, Roberts in her examination of the intersections of crime, race, and reproduction, discusses the convergence between the racial construction of crime and the use of reproduction as an instrument of punishment.

As part of our integrative analysis of class, race, and gender, we similarly attempt to explore how each of these hierarchies helps to sustain the others, and how these reinforce the types of crimes and justice we have in society. More generally, we bring at least four related assumptions to our study in the social relations of class, race, gender, and crime control: First, that each of these categories of social difference share similarities and dissimilarities of justice, especially as these relate to power resources and to the allocation and distribution of rewards and punishments in society.

Second, that the systems of privilege and inequality derived from the social statuses of class, race, and gender, share distinct as well as integrative, or overlapping and accumulating, affects on the type of crime control that various groups of people receive. Fourth, that systems of crime control socially construct selectively enforced and differentially applied norms to social groups, according to relationships of power, status, and authority. During the 20th century, we recognize that, on the one hand, the more blatant forms of discrimination based on alleged differences of race, ethnicity, and gender, have been significantly reduced in the United States.

On the other hand, we also recognize that although the legalized and institutionalized forms of bias have been reformed and abolished by law, that, in practice, differential treatment based on race and gender still persists.

Hence, in terms of the operations of crime control, poor persons still have fewer resources or less power working for them in negotiating outcomes within and without the criminal justice system than the affluent or middle classes. And, when poor persons are of color or are female too, they usually hold even less power, and if they are all three-poor, of color, and female-then they typically possess lesser power still.

Our study is not an ethnographic study of victims or victimizers, but rather its an analytical investigation into the institutionalized practices and outcomes of crime control. Nevertheless, we share the insights and the desires of Madriz and Totten to unravel the complexities of class, race, and gender as these interact with the cultural production of crime, justice, and inequality. We also share their critical view that crime, justice, and crime control cannot be separated from the totality of the ordered, structural, and cultural contexts of their productivity.

Each of our cultural approaches holds that the inequalities in control and justice are part and parcel of the social constructions of class, race, and gender differences, as these are experienced in relationship to place, order, conflict, and perception. Moreover, social perceptions of what constitutes unacceptable social injuries and acceptable social controls are shaped by the underlying elements of social organization, or by the production and distribution of economic, political, and cultural services Michalowski Following Antonio Gramsci , we are not talking about conspiracies of elites and decision-makers here, but rather, we are referring to agreed upon definitions of harms and injuries, pains and sufferings, and crimes and punishments that reflect capitalist political-economic relations and interests.

Hence, in the final judgment serious crime defined from above or below, from the suite to the street, and from the official reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to the cultural media, all become statistically mediated and socially constructed phenomena.

In culturally generated numbers, narratives, and pictures alike, a distorted view and limited perception of harmful behavior emerges. Crimes and criminals are restricted primarily to the tabulations and representations of conventional criminal code violations, such as homicide, rape, burglary, robbery, theft, and less often, assault.

From a comparative perspective, whatare traditionally omitted from these images and narratives of justice are two things: Just as these materially and culturally produced images of crime and criminals leave impressions that reinforce one-dimensional notions that criminality and harmful behavior are exclusively the responsibility of the poor and marginal members of society, the material and cultural images of crime control and the administration of justice leave impressions that reproduce limiting social realities of social control and crime prevention.

As mass consumers, for example, we all share a virtual reality of mediated facsimiles of lawbreakers and crime-fighters.

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